An individual is made up of his or her frames of reference. Our social interactions and beliefs are all a reflection of our surroundings, environment, things we hear, feel or touch. A frame of reference can simply be defined as “The context, viewpoint, or set of presuppositions or of evaluative criteria within which a person's perception and thinking seem always to occur, and which constrains selectively the course and outcome of these activities" therefore one can say, Gender, Age, Religion, Environment, Education, Occupation, Political Class, Family and Press are the common determinants of individual frames of reference.
"We are told about the world before we see it. We imagine most things before we experience them and those preconceptions, unless education has made us acutely aware; govern deeply the whole process of perception. They mark out certain objects as familiar or strange, emphasizing the difference, so that the slightly familiar is seen as very familiar and the somewhat strange as sharply.
The notion of the "frame of reference" has to bring together ideas from a number of disciplines.
• From the psychology of perception, the theory of Gestalt
• From developmental psychology, there is some relevance in the Piagetian notions of assimilation and accommodation
• From social psychology, the issue of stereotyping and prejudice and even cognitive dissonance
• From sociology, professional socialization and ideology, and Goffmann's ideas about "framing" and the ethno-methodologists' "typifications".
• And from social anthropology, the potency of cultural perspectives and assumptions
Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial stages of development has been widely accepted as a matured and much sounder judgment of cognitive development of humans and his social interactions. According to the theory, a successful completion of each stages of development returns a handsomely healthy personality and how we view the world around us.... [continues]
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