History is a troublesome word in the English language, having a number of meanings and usages. We often use the term without really considering the underlying concepts it represents. We use history to stand for actual events that took place in the past. The view of history as a collection of events, a flow of actions and reactions is as old has human curiosity about things happened before their own time. The human mind has always seemed to seek consistency in things, perhaps more than is really to be found. . History has made us and society who we are, and the past will always affect the present and not so much our future like so many of us perceive it does. Psychology is still a very young study.
The zeitgeist is the general cultural, intellectual, ethnical, spiritual, or political climate within a nation or even specific groups, along with the general ambiance, morals, socio cultural direction, and mood associated with an era.
The personalistic position in scientific history is the one that surrounds the idea that every person forms the course of our history, and their discoveries are solely their own and have they themselves have molded and changed our world throughout the years. This idea if often trusted upon because at a glance it seems so obviously correct. When we learn about the past, this if often all we learn; that these great minds came up with these single great ideas and the world was never the same again. We are to think that these people held the sole responsibility of changing the world and that they were all creative geniuses alone. This outlook on history is attention grabbing because great scientists are given an enormous amount of credit for their findings. The personalistic position is also known as the “Great Man” theory. It is important that we as
individuals study history. It is interesting because it allows us to see more reasons as to why we should appreciate and try and understand history such as the fact that it allows us to see what it means to be human. Our present lives cannot be understood without knowing things about the past. This allows us to put the present in a better perspective and seeing that things we normally complain about really are not so bad in reference to what people have dealt with in the past.
The personalistic position still influences our every day of looking at history. The personalistic view is difficult to dispute and yet, the old question still lingers, do people do great things because there is some quality of greatness in them or do we merely attribute greatness to individuals who happen to be caught up in great or important events? While the personalistic view depends on genius, charisma and power in the hands of a few, the naturalistic position depends on the mass of individuals who make up society and the lawfulness of their interpersonal relations.
The naturalistic position in scientific history is that world continues to grow and evolve, and when certain determinants fall into place, specific outcomes will follow. In other words, evolution and inventive theories are inevitable, life will go on and new discoveries are bound to happen with time. I think it is important to have kind of a neutral understanding of both sides because that is usually the best road to take; that way you can understand each side and basically take your own personal stance on how things truly happened throughout history. For the sake of understanding, more personalistic views are taught when we are younger because they are more obvious and easier to understand. These chapters in the book looks at both of these positions together in order to help us learn about people who have contributed to history as well as the environments they did their work in.
The naturalistic position involves humans in the natural world and how we as humans act within the universe. This position causes us to behave in certain ways that...