Nanobots: Blood and Human Body

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M.Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur

M.Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur

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Robert A. Freitas Jr. visualizes a future "vasculoid" (vascular-like machine) that would replace human blood with some 500 trillion nanorobots distributed throughout the body’s vasculature as a coating. It could eradicate heart disease, stroke, and other vascular problems; remove parasites, bacteria, viruses, and metastasizing cancer cells to limit the spread of blood borne disease; move lymphocytes faster to improve immune response; reduce susceptibility to chemical, biochemical, and parasitic poisons; improve physical endurance and stamina; and partially protect from various accidents and other physical harm. With the availability of mature molecular nanotechnology we could replace blood with a single complex robot. This robot would duplicate all essential thermal and biochemical transport functions of the blood, including circulation of respiratory gases, glucose, hormones, cytokines, waste products, and all necessary cellular components. The device would conform to the shape of existing blood vessels. Ideally, it would replace natural blood so thoroughly that the rest of the body would remain, essentially unaffected. It is, in effect, a mechanically engineered redesign of the human circulatory system that attempts to integrate itself as an intimate personal appliance with minimal adaptation on the part of the host human body. Molecular nanotechnology has been defined as the three-dimensional positional control of molecular structure to create materials and devices to molecular precision. The human body is comprised of molecules; hence the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress in human medical services. Nanomedicine will employ molecular machine systems to address medical problems, and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanobots will have extraordinary and far-reaching implications for the medical profession, for the definition of disease, for the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions including aging, and ultimately for the improvement and extension of natural human biological structure and function. "Nanomedicine is the preservation and improvement of human health using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body." RESPIROCYTES

The artificial respirocyte is a hollow, spherical Nano medical device 1 micron in diameter. The respirocyte is built of 18 billion precisely arranged structural atoms, and holds an additional 9 billion molecules when it is fully loaded. Respirocytes are Nano machines, tiny mechanical devices designed to operate on the molecular level. Respirocytes function as artificial red blood cells, carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules through the body. There are three main storage tanks - one for oxygen, another for carbon dioxide and a third for ballast water. An onboard chemo mechanical turbine or fuel cell generates power by combining glucose drawn from the bloodstream and oxygen drawn from internal storage. This is converted to mechanical power which drives molecular sorting rotors and other subsystems, as demonstrated in principle by a variety of biological motor systems such as bacteria flagella. [pic]

Each power plant develops 0.3 Pico watts of power. That's enough energy to fill the oxygen tank in 10 seconds from empty; a pumping rate of 100 million molecules/sec .Power is transmitted mechanically or hydraulically using an appropriate working fluid. Power is distributed with sliding rods and gear trains, or using pipes and mechanically operated valves, and is controlled by the computer. An onboard computer is necessary for precise control of respiratory gas loading and unloading, rotor...
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