Topics: Carbon dioxide, Oxygen, Blood Pages: 19 (6018 words) Published: March 10, 2011
Smrithi Sasidharan (Btech 3rd Year, ECE)
Varsha Vasudev(BTech 3rd Year, EB )
Amrita School of Engineering Bangalore, Model Engineering College, Kochi ABSTRACT
Molecules are the universal basic building blocks of all the elements of nature, whether it be living or non-living. The complex human body with its interdependent physiological subsystems can be scaled down to a collection of various types of molecules. The accessibility to the molecular and atomic components of the body can resolve a variety of constraints faced in the medical field and can provide a tremendous breakthrough for the treatment of a variety of diseases which are considered incurable in the present scenario. Molecular manufacturing deals with the production of micron scaled machines or microcontrolled nanorobots composed of nano scale components which can access each and every molecule in a cell. These nanorobots can be introduced into the human body orally thus eliminating the need for an invasive technique to access the internal body. One type of nanorobot which can be used is the respirocytes.The respirocytes are artificial mechanical red blood cells designed by Robert.A.Fretias. It is a 1000 atm diamondoid pressure vessel designed to deliver oxygen about 236 times more than the natural blood cells per unit cell volume. These respirocytes are provided with mechanical, chemical and pressure sensors and are implanted with an onboard microcomputer. The processor can be remotely controlled by the doctor using acoustic signals thus directing the respirocyte to the specified location and simultaneously monitoring its functioning. The respirocytes can be used in a variety of applications like transfusable blood substitution; partial treatment for anaemia, perinatal/neonatal lung disorders, enhancement of cardiovascular/neurovascular procedures, tumour therapies and diagnostics, prevention of asphyxia and artificial breathing. Eventhough the respirocytes have not been practically implemented wide research is going on for the design of these promising artificial red blood cells. The major problem in the design of these nanorobots is their manufacturing in the nano scale using materials and components which are physically and chemically compatible with the human body with minimum aftereffects. The respirocytes thus give us huge hopes for the elimination of many currently untreatable diseases with added advantages of precise and effective resolution. 1. INTRODUCTION

Robotics is the branch of engineering science dealing with the design of robot, their manufacture and applications. This science can be categorised into three fields : * Electronics
* Mechanics
* Software
Fully autonomous machines started to appear by the start of the twentieth century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, Unimate, invented in 1961 was used to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine. The robots are designed to accomplish relatively complicated, tedious and dull jobs relative to humans more cheaply, accurately and with utmost reliability. The basic applications of robots are in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, lab research and safe and mass production of weaponry. A. Nanorobotics and Nanomedicine

Nanorobotics is the subbranch of Robotics dealing with machines or robots designed in the micron scale of .1 -10 micrometers with nano scale assemblies. As no artificial non – biological nanorobot has been designed till now, it still remains a hypothetical nanotechnology engineering concept. The terms Nanobots, Nanoids, Nanites and Nanomites are synonyms of Nanorobots. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology in medical field.  The approaches to Nanomedicine range from the medical use of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Molecular technology has clear implications in the...
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