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Curriculum Development
Q.1
Define Term Curriculum and Discus Role of Curriculum in Pakistan Society: Definition 1: Curriculum is such “permanent” subjects as grammar, reading, logic, rhetoric, mathematics, and the greatest books of the Western world that best embody essential knowledge.

Definition 2: Curriculum is those subjects that are most useful for living in contemporary society.

Definition 3: Curriculum is all planned learnings for which the school is responsible.

Definition 4: Curriculum is all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school.

Definition 5: Curriculum is the totality of learning experiences provided to students so that they can attain general skills and knowledge at a variety of learning sites.

Definition 6: Curriculum is what the student constructs from working with the computer and its various networks, such as the Internet.

Definition 7: Curriculum is the questioning of authority and the searching for complex views of human situations.

Definition 8: Curriculum is all the experiences that learners have in the course of living. The term "curriculum" is generally understood as the courses or programmes of study offered by an educational institution. The concept of "curriculum" is best understood, however, from the Latin root of the word which is "currere", or "to run" as in to run a race course. To use an analogy, curriculum means the course (or path) that students have to run to finish the "race" -- or put another way, all the activities which students need do if they are to finish a programme of study and achieve the intended learning goals. Curriculum is more than just a body of knowledge, a list of subjects to be studied, or a syllabus -- it is all the planned experiences which learners may be exposed to in order to achieve the learning goals. A major influence on a curriculum is the philosophical framework, or educational ideology, which is adopted during the curriculum development process itself. Two contrasting frameworks, or models, of curriculum development are the "classical" model and the "participatory" model. The classical model has also been referred to as the "rational" approach while the participatory model has been described as the "interactive" approach. The classical/rational approach to curriculum development follows an "objectivist", product-oriented paradigm. The aims and objectives of the curriculum are set by professionals and experts who believe that they have sufficient technical knowledge to produce the desired product. It assumes that there is agreement by all interested groups (teachers, students, communities, employers) on common educational goals and, therefore, dialogue and consensus building among groups are not required. The participatory/interactive approach follows a "subjectivist", process-oriented paradigm. It puts emphasis on participation and interaction among the various interested groups or educational stakeholders. This includes the learners themselves who are seen as having an important role to play in curriculum formulation. The goal is to stimulate different actors to participate in a dynamic, interactive process that allows their perceptions of the "ideal curriculum" to be made explicit and then made compatible and/or modified as necessary to produce the curriculum. Although there are distinct philosophical differences between the two curriculum models or approaches, they are not complete opposites and curriculum planning may include elements of both. A complex combination of both internal, or institutional, demands and external, or societal, demands can influence the curriculum development process. Internal demands relate to the educational community itself -- management, teaching staff, students, governing boards or ministries. The claims they make have to do with teaching, learning, research and outreach tasks, and specifically with finances, materials, rewards, qualifications and professionalism. External...
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