Multimedia

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Multimedia refers to the capacity of computers to provide a representation of all media and sensory modes of instruction, media such as graphics, texts, and animation. It is the creation, storage, and experience through the use of digital technology. Multimedia is found in many different industries such as education, entertainment, business, and research. It is information that can and should be utilized as both visually and auditory. Visual and auditory forms of information can be provided by a variety of media whereas taste, smells, and texture are often hard to create. That is why students who use multimedia learn more through explanation of words and pictures rather than in words alone. Through the use of multi-access of multimedia specific factors can influence or fail to influence how effective instruction delivery can be. The various forms of multimedia consist of contiguity, coherence, modality, redundancy, personalization, segmenting, and pre-training.

In discussing the contiguity of multimedia, one has to have an understanding of the topic. Contiguity is using multimedia that students learn with corresponding words and pictures that are near to rather than far from each other on the page or screen (Mayer, 2003). There are two different forms of contiguity, spatial and temporal. The spatial contiguity principle asserts that when images and text are provided close together, connections linking the two types of information will be made more easily and mental models leading to meaningful learning will occur. Not only does the close proximity of images and text allow for connections to be readily made, but this design also lessens cognitive load creating by searching for supporting images that do not appear near the explanatory text. Unless both modalities are processes in working memory simultaneously, referential connections between them are less likely to be made, especially in inexperienced learners.

The temporal contiguity principle asserts that if verbal and visual information are presented at the same time rather than with one representation following another, a higher rate of transfer to long term memory will transpire. Just as with spatial contiguity, where holding both mental and verbal images in the working memory at the same time leads to meaningful connections, by providing visual and verbal information simultaneously, mental connections leading are more likely occur.

The coherence effects refers to the finding that students learn more deeply from multimedia explanation when extraneous material is excluded rather that included.(Mayer,2003) Coherence Design Principle eliminate extraneous words and pictures. Learning is better when words, images and sounds not directly useful for comprehension are removed. The coherence principle is important because it is commonly violated, is straightforward to apply, and can have a strong impact on learning. When learners pay attention to sound and music, they are less able to pay attention to the narration describing the relevant steps in the explanation. The cognitive theory of multimedia learning predicts that students will learn more deeply from multimedia presentation that do not contain interesting but extraneous sound and music than from multimedia presentations that do. Anecdotes, illustrations and ambient music are example of often unnecessary elements. Humans possess two channels visual and verbal regardless of whether material is presented by book or computer. Each channel is limited in capacity regardless of whether material is presented by book or computer. Active cognitive processing including selecting, organizing, and integrating mental representations promotes meaningful learning regardless of whether material is presented by book or computer. (Mayer 2003)

Modality principle, people learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text. Modality students learn better when their...
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