The third aspect of multicultural counseling I am going to look at is on the issues of gender differences The group members presenting this topic defined gender as what is culturally assumed as femininity and masculininity. According to Deustch (2007). Gender refers to social attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female and the relationship between men and women, boys and girls which are learnt through socialization. Boys and girls are socialized differently. Gender socialization refers to norms, behaviuor and attitudes considered appropriate for given sex by society. Boys learn to be boys and girls to be girls. For example, girls are expected to play with dolls and boys with toy cars. Girls are praised for being neat while boys are encouraged to think independently and be active and speak up. Boys learn to manipulate their social and physical environment through physical strength while girls present themselves as objects to be viewed. Howell (1981) cited by McLeod (1998) points out that the basic assumption of feminists is that the great majority of cultures women are systematically oppressed and exploited. MacKinnon(1982) also cited by MacLeod(1998) noted that the female gender stereotype is the gender socialization process through which women internalized themselves as sexual beings that exists for men..
Due to gender socialization the group found themselves facing workplace discrimination such as acceptance for typical male for manual labour while female roles are nursing and childcare. Bullying and sexual harassment is at the increase at workplace. Men are less likely to report harassment because they were not socialized to do so. Single fathers also face discrimination they are seen as are less sympathy and unable to express emotions .Courts usually favor mother to access rights for children. Due to gender expectation women are considered to be homemaker and mothers while men are hunter or gatherers because society is less...
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