The employment process begins with manpower planning i.e. the forecasting anddetermination of the exact personnel requirements and a company and the specification of thestrategies and tactics for the acquisition, utilization, improvement and preservation of its humanresources. The aim of manpower planning is to avoid shortfalls and surpluses of labour.Shortages lead to over utilization while surpluses lead to redundancy and underutilization of manpower. With manpower planning, a firm does not react to each new set of circumstances onthe basis of the short-term personnel needs which they present. Rather, the systematic steps thatare taken provide overall co-ordination, direction, and logic for its personnel decisions.Man power planning is defined by Vetter as:“the process by which management determines howthe organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position.”Through planning, the management strives to have the right number and right kind of people , atright places, at the right time, doing things which result in both the organization and theindividual receiving maximum long run benefit.According to Gordon MacBeath, manpower planning involves two stages. The first stage isconcerned with the detailed “ planning of manpower requirement for all types and levels of employees throughout the period of plan.,” and the second stage is concerned with “ the planningof manpower supplies to provide the organization with the right type of people from all sourcesto meet the planned requirements.” The main steps involved in manpower planning are as follows: 1.
Ascertain objectives and operating plans
: The first step in manpower planning is toascertain the objectives and operating plans of the company. This is because it is the company’s plans and anticipated levels of production and activity that will determine the specific quantityand quality of manpower that will be required.2. State the manpower implications of projected operations:
The second step is tospecify the manpower implication of the company’s projected operations and plans. Thisexercise which is an assessment of manpower demand might show the need for more labour incertain areas while showing the need for reduction of labour in others.
Make an inventory of the firm’s manpower
: The third step is to take an inventory of the manpower resources within the firm. This involves the physical counting of employees (aform of census) to know the number of workers that are available in each occupational category.If the numbers of workers available are not enough to cope with the planned future operations,then more staff will be needed. If there is going to be an excess of employees, then plans have to be made to reduce the present staff strength.4. Match resources with requirements
: The fourth and final step is to match resourceswith requirements. If there is going to be a shortage of particular categories of personnel infuture then arrangements have to be made to recruit more of such workers from the externallabour market. Some workers in the company may of course be trained and upgraded to fillsome of the expected vacancies.5. Design training programmes:
These will be based upon extent of diversification, expansionplans, development programmes,etc. Training programmes depend upon the extent of improvement intechnology and advancement to take place. It is also done to improve upon the skills, capabilities,knowledge of the workers. Activities involved in Manpower Planning:
Identifying and designing current and planned organization structure of the organization. •
Estimating current and future workload for different functions and organizational units inthe organization, and, based on that, estimating the current and future total requirement of people to fill the...