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Annotated Instructor’s Edition

Elementary and Intermediate Algebra
Third Edition

George Woodbury
College of the Sequoias

Addison-Wesley
Boston Amsterdam Delhi Columbus Indianapolis London New York Madrid San Francisco Milan Munich Seoul Upper Saddle River Paris Montreal Taipei Toronto Tokyo Cape Town Mexico City Dubai

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Singapore

Editorial Director: Christine Hoag Editor in Chief: Maureen O’Connor Acquisitions Editor: Dawn Giovaniello Executive Project Manager: Kari Heen Senior Content Editor: Lauren Morse Editorial Assistant: Chelsea Pingree Media Producer: Carl Cottrell Software Development: Mary Durnwald, Tanya Farber, and Eileen Moore Production Project Manager: Beth Houston Senior Design Supervisor: Andrea Nix Cover Designer: Christina Gleason Text Designer: Tamara Newnam Production Services: PreMedia Global Executive Marketing Manager: Michelle Renda Associate Marketing Manager: Tracy Rabinowitz Marketing Coordinator: Alicia Frankel Prepress Services Buyer: Caroline Fell Manufacturing Buyer: Linda Cox Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Woodbury, George, 1967Elementary and intermediate algebra / George Woodbury. -- 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN-13: 978-0-321-66548-5 (student ed.) ISBN-10: 0-321-66548-1 (student ed.) ISBN-13: 978-0-321-66584-3 (instructor ed.) ISBN-10: 0-321-66584-8 (instructor ed.) 1. Algebra--Textbooks. I. Title. QA152.3.W66 2012 512.9--dc22 2010002670 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request in Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 501 Boylston Street, 9th floor, Boston, MA 02116. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

ISBN-10: 0-321-66548-1 ISBN-13: 978-0-321-66548-5

To Tina, Dylan, and Alycia You make everything meaningful and worthwhile— yesterday, today, and tomorrow.

Contents
Preface viii

1

Review of Real Numbers

1

1.1 Integers, Opposites, and Absolute Values 1 1.2 Operations with Integers 6 1.3 Fractions 15 1.4 Operations with Fractions 20 1.5 Decimals and Percents 27 1.6 Basic Statistics 32 1.7 Exponents and Order of Operations 43 1.8 Introduction to Algebra 47 Chapter 1 Summary 55 Chapter 1 Review 60 Chapter 1 Test 62 Mathematicians in History 62

2

Linear Equations

63

2.1 Introduction to Linear Equations 63 2.2 Solving Linear Equations: A General Strategy 70 2.3 Problem Solving; Applications of Linear Equations 79 2.4 Applications Involving Percentages; Ratio and Proportion 2.5 Linear Inequalities 101 Chapter 2 Summary 111 Chapter 2 Review 115 Chapter 2 Test 116 Mathematicians in History 117

90

3

Graphing Linear Equations

118

3.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System; Equations in Two Variables 118 3.2 Graphing Linear Equations and Their Intercepts 128 3.3 Slope of a Line 140 3.4 Linear Functions 153 3.5 Parallel and Perpendicular Lines 162 3.6 Equations of Lines 168 3.7 Linear Inequalities 176 Chapter 3 Summary 187 Chapter 3 Review 193 Chapter 3 Test 196 Mathematicians in History 197

4

Systems of Equations
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

198

Systems of Linear Equations; Solving Systems by Graphing 198 Solving Systems of Equations by Using the Substitution Method 207 Solving Systems of Equations by Using the Addition Method 214 Applications of...
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