Extrinsic motivation is related to rewards such as salary, job security, benefits, promotional prospects, the working environment and its conditions. Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual. It relates to rewards which are psychological such as positive recognition and a sense of challenge and achievement. Vroom’s expectancy theory - Vroom believes that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of the goal and if they can see that what they do will help them to achieve it. Maslow Theory hierarchy of needs – self actualisation, esteem needs self esteem recognition status, social needs sense of belonging love, safety needs security protection, physiological needs hunger thirst.
Herzberg two factor theory – hygiene factors (maintenance factors to avoid dissatisfaction but do not necessarily motivate employees) - Company policy and administration, Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration, Quality of supervision, Quality of inter-personal relations, Working conditions, Feelings of job security. Motivator factors – Status, Opportunity for advancement, Gaining recognition, Responsibility, Challenging / stimulating work, Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job. McGregor’s X and Y theory – Theory X = Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible, Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led, Individuals who desire security. Theory Y = Consider effort at work as just like rest or play, Ordinary people who do not dislike work. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment, Individuals who seek responsibility (if they are motivated). Taylor’s scientific management theory - Man is a rational economic animal concerned with maximising his economic gain, People respond as individuals, not as groups, People can be treated in a standardised fashion, like machines. Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Model is...
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