2.Theory of Motivation
2.1Instrumental Theory of Motivation
2.2Content Theory of Motivation
2.3Process Theory of Motivation
3.Motivators and Demotivators in the Workplace
Motivation, in a plain language, is what makes people do things, to provide with a motive to impel one to action. This paper discusses how to motivate employees at workplace to perform well. There are many reasons and methods to successfully motivate employees. Firstly and obviously, motivated employees are much more productive than employees who are not. Therefore Managers need to know about the factors that create motivation in order to be able to induce employees to work harder, more efficiently and with greater enthusiasm by knowing their employees’ needs. The objective of this paper is to explore three theories of motivation, Instrumental (focusing on Scientific Management), Content (covering theories by Maslow, Herzberg and McClelland) and Process (Covering equity, expectancy and goal setting theories). It will also identify the advantages and their shortcomings. Secondly this paper will look at NMB bank case to identify motivators and demotivators in a workplace. Finally provide practical recommendation that will effectively address the demotivators in the workplace.
2.Theory of Motivation
Motivation studies have aimed to discover what triggers and sustain human behaviour at work. Motivation can be described as goal directed behaviour i.e. the will to work and achieve certain goals e.g. earn more money or achieve promotion. It can also be referred as external or internal factors/forces that influence an individual positively (Gibson et el, 2000). Motivation Theories try to describe why people at work behave the way they do. The theories describe what organizations can do to encourage employees apply their efforts and abilities to achieve organizations’ goals. Motivation theories are also concerned with job satisfaction and factor that create satisfaction and its impact on their behaviour (Gibson et el, 2000). There are a number of different motivation theories and these theories do not all reach the same conclusion. Motivation theories can be classified into three categories, Content Theory, Process Theory and Instrumental Theory (Armstrong, 2008). 2.1Instrumental Theory of Motivation
Instrumental Theory assumes that a person will be motivated to work if rewards and punishment are tied directly to performance (Armstrong, 2008) i.e. people are rewarded for behaving as expected. This theory originated from scientific management theory, and according to this theory, it is impossible to get people to work much harder than others unless assured on rewards. However, according to Armstrong (2008), Instrumental Theory failed to appreciate the fact that the formal control system can be affected by informal relationships between employees or between management and employees. 2.2Content Theory of Motivation
Content Theory falls in the second category, it emphasizes that it is needs that motivate people. There are a number of theories on providing the need for motivation. However, this paper will look on three most influential theories that advocate needs as motivators. These are Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory and McClelland’s acquired needs theory. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs proposes that people are motivated by five levels of needs, first Physiological needs, these are the most basic human physical needs like food, shelter, clothing etc. Secondly Safety and Security needs, these are concerned with physical safety and emotional security. Third is Belonging and Social needs, the need for friendship, affiliation, interaction and love. Most people are motivated by the social contacts they make at work. There is a need to belong to a...