Motivation and Prentice Hall

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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e
Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge

Chapter 5

Motivation Concepts
Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-1

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Describe the three key elements of motivation. 2. Identify four early theories of motivation and evaluate their applicability today. 3. Compare and contrast goal-setting theory and selfefficacy theory. 4. Demonstrate how organizational justice is a refinement of equity theory. 5. Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees. 6. Explain to what degree motivation theories are culture bound. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-2

What Is Motivation?
The processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a organizational goal  Intensity – the amount of effort put forth to meet the goal  Direction – efforts are channeled toward organizational goals  Persistence – how long the effort is maintained Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-3

Early Theories of Motivation
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y • Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory • McClellan’s Theory of Needs (Three Needs Theory) Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-4

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Self-Actualization
Upper

Esteem Social
Safety Psychological
5-5

Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Lower

Douglas McGregor’s X & Y
Theory X Theory Y

• Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it • Must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment

• View work as being as natural as rest or play • Will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives 5-6

Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Not Dissatisfied

Satisfied
Motivation Factors

• Quality of supervision • Pay • Company policies • Physical working conditions • Relationships • Job security

Hygiene Factors

• Promotional opportunities

• Opportunities for personal growth • Recognition
• Responsibility

• Achievement

Dissatisfied
Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Not Satisfied
5-7

McClelland's Theory of Needs
• Need for Achievement (nAch)
The drive to excel

• Need for Power (nPow)
The need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise

• Need for Affiliation (nAff)
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-8

McClelland's High Achievers
• High achievers prefer jobs with:
 Personal responsibility  Feedback  Intermediate degree of risk (50/50)

• High achievers are not necessarily good managers
• High nPow and low nAff is related to managerial success
Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-9

Contemporary Theories of Motivation
• Cognitive Evaluation Theory • Goal-Setting Theory
 Management by Objectives

• Self-Efficacy Theory

• Equity Theory • Expectancy Theory
Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-10

Cognitive Evaluation Theory
• Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work (pay) that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation

• Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation, while tangible rewards undermine it Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5-11

Goal-Setting Theory
• Goals increase performance when the goals are:
 Specific

 Difficult, but accepted by employees  Accompanied by feedback (especially selfgenerated feedback)

• Contingencies in goal-setting theory:
 Goal Commitment – public goals better!
...
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