Mothers as Family Managers

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WATER A N D SANITATION FOR HEALTH PROJECT

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THE ROLE OF WOMEN AS
P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D BENEFICIARIES

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COORCINATION A N D INFORR4ATION CENTER

IN W A T E R SUPPLY A N D
SANlTATlON PROGRAMS
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Opcrarcti bv CDhl FIVC for the U.S. t l g r n c y T r Intcrriation,il r k Y ~ l q ~ n i ~ r i l o

1611 N. Kcnt Street, Room 1002 Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA Telephone: (703) 243-8203 Tclcx No. VJUI 64552 Cable Address WASHAID

WASH TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 11
DECEMBER 1981

Prepared for: Office of Health Bureau for S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y U.S. Agency for International Development C - Task 5 1

WASH TECHNICAL REPORT NO. I1

THE ROLE OF WOMEN AS PARTICIPANTS AND BENEFICIARIES IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROGRAMS

Prepared for the O f f i c ~of Health B u r e ~ ufor Science and Technology Agency for International Development under C-Task 51

Prepared by: Mary L. Elmendorf, Ph.D. and Raymond B. Isely, M.D., M.P.H.,

D.T.M

December 1981

Contract No. AID/DSPE-C-0080 Project No. 931-1176

TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter SUMMARY Page

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iii iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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1.1
1.2

Women and Sanitation

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An Approach to Understanding Women's Roles Relationship to Primary Health Care

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.............. 2 . WOMEN AS ACCEPTORS OF IMPROVED WATER AND SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES: CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROJECT PLANNING . 3. WOMEN AS USERS OF IMPROVED WATER AND SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES: FACTORS IN PROJECT IMPLEMENTATIdN..... 3.1 Education of Wornen as Users of Water Supply and Sanitation Facilities ............................ 1.3 3.2

3.3

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4

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Women as Water and Sanitation Promoters

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........ 9 3.4 Communication Through Explanation and Demonstra.. tion .......................................... 10 4 WOMEN AS MANAGERS OF YATER AND SANITATION FACILITIES: INCLUDING THEM IN TRAINING .......................... 11 4.1 Women as Managers ................................ 11 4.2 Women as Trainers ............................... 13 5 . WOMEN AS AGENTS OF CHANGE IN WATER AND SANITATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR EVALUATIOY .......................... 15 5.1 Household-Level Effects .......................... 15 5.2 Community-Level Effects .......................... 15 Attention to Supportive Social Structures

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5.3 54 .

Implications fo; Evaluation Design

.......... 6. RECOMMENDATIONS....................................... Implications for Evaluation Methodology
6.1

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16 18 19

Planning. Implementation and Evaluation

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6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3
6.2

Project Planning Guides Project Implementation Guides Project Evaluation Guidelines

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Possibilities for Future Research

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
FIGURE :

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A Model for the Evaluation of Water Supply and
Sanitation Projects in Developing Countries: Illustrating the Broad Hole of Women

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SUMMARY In this paper based on an extensive review of both the published and unpublished literature, arguments are made that women should be given prime consideration as acceptors, users, managers, and diffusers (change agents) for the introduction of innovative water supply and sanitation technologies. Specific strategies for involving women in each of these roles are recommended with examples given from water supply and sanitation and other related projects in the field.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
T h e time a n d e f f o r t o f many p e o p l e w e n t i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h i s r e p o r t . Many made c o n t r i b u t i o n s a t i t s f o r m a t i v e s t a g e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d r a f t was d i s t r i b u t e d t a r e l e v a c t reg i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l o f...
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