Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust (2010) defines Diversity in relation to public health as the term that describes the virtual uniqueness of each person or people group. The uniqueness that exists among the diverse people groups includes their skills, experiences, culture, interests, values and their ambitions. Each of these groups is rich with enormous possibilities. One of the Public Health provider’s professional responsibility is to learn and understand the diversity and cultural differences that exists in there area of operation and beyond, in order to address the health needs of these groups effectively (Woodward, 2010). One of the key agendas of the public health sectors in any country is to provide health care interventions that make a positive difference to the people and in a way that respects and values diversity of those people (UK DoH, 2004). The government has a responsibility to ensure that the rights of the different people groups are protected in the law, so that all the citizens in the society, especially the vulnerable groups are protected from discrimination (Woodward, 2010). It is important for Public Health Professionals to recognize that it is expected for them to provide care for members of the society who are from diverse backgrounds. This paper provides a discussion on the diversity concerns of public health. In discussing this topic, the paper looks at different people groups that exist in different parts of the world in regard to public health, their role and needs in relation to public health (Woodward, 2010).
Cultural mores and their effect on public health practices
From the 1970s, the cultural patterns of the Indonesians prompted the government to enact public health reforms programs owing to the rise in population density, water pollution, soil erosion, and siltation of river bends (Naya, 2010). Indonesia is a large region with an immense population of 237.6 million people according to 2010 national census. In the historical eras around 1970s and 1980s jobs were not very common forcing many Indonesians to become fishermen. Because of the increased number of fishermen in the area, they have almost exhausted the sea resources in the region and are now crossing into the Australian waters. Indonesia is facing many environmental problems which are as a direct of industrialization, overpopulation, illegal Fishing, and the pollution around the city. One example is the logging problem. This causes a rippling effect in many environmental areas; Indonesia's air is polluted because there are fewer trees to absorb Carbon dioxide (Naya, 2010). The cultural pattern that has been consistent among the Indonesians comprises of the Indianized rice growing peasants in Suimantera valleys, in Bali, and Java. Another cultural aspect is the coastal Islamic commercial workers. The various cultural patterns of the different people groups have an effect on the geographical resources of Indonesia (Naya, 2010). Historical factors and impact made on public health
The economic crisis that hit Asia in the 1990s is one of the historical factors that forced Indonesia to carry out radical reforms in all sectors the government including the public health sector. Decentralization of government functions was recommended and implemented in 2001. Since then, the public health sector has devolved its activities in the city, district governments and the municipalities (Bossert, et al. 2003).The decentralization effort in Indonesia has since then improved the equity and deployment of health services, as well as promoting the decision making process which has gone far and beyond in ensuring better policies that addresses the health problems among the locals (Naya, 2010).
Current health status
A study conducted by Ascobat Gani in 2009, showed that in the underdeveloped cities and...