A recommendation report for water provision methods in arid region of Egypt 1 Introduction
This report aims to compare and recommend water provision methods for arid region of Egypt. In order to identify what water provision methods are suitable for arid region in Egypt, this report will firstly compare two water provision methods which are desalination and water reuse by considering three requirements in relation to the specific situation of Egypt, which are cost, environmental impacts and public acceptance, finally, this report will recommend water reuse as a water provision method for Egyptian arid region. 1.2 Situation of water shortage in Egypt
Egypt is particularly destitute of water because the majority of these regions are extremely arid. According to Peel et al. (2007, p.1638), the climate of Egypt is hot desert climate. In other words rainfall is quite rare in these regions and the evaporation of water is serious due to high temperature. Furthermore, the increasing population make the water supply for Egypt bear more stress. As illustrated by the data from Engelman and LeRoy (1993,pp.55-56), the regional average per capital water availability was 2385 m3/year in 1995 after which it sharply descended to 1046 m3/year in 1990 and is excepted to be keeping declining to 676 m3/year by 2025. Generally, lacking of water has been the most obstacles for Egypt to support the society and develop the economy. Thus, it is of great significance to explore the suitable water provision methods to meet the increasing water demand of Egypt. 2 Background
Water scarcity has been a common phenomenon over the world and is becoming increasingly serious. The data from UN (n.d.) suggested that approximately 700 million people in 43 countries are experiencing water scarcity. About 1.8 billion people will face the danger of water scarcity and 2/3 of global population will bear water scarcity by 2025(ibid). Lacking of water is one of the biggest problems faced by modern society of human beings. A main cause of today’s water scarcity is the increasing global population. In past decades, the amount of population increase would generate twice quantity of water demand (UN,n.d.). So when limited water resources can’t meet growing water consumption, water scarcity would occur. Moreover, water scarcity in Egypt is particularly serious because Egypt is one of most arid regions over the word (Peel et al., 2007, p.1638) 3 Presentation of options
Desalination is way of producing fresh water by eliminating salt from seawater (Wetterau, 2011, p.3). The process of desalination could be divided into two stages (See Figure1). In the first stage, seawater is pumped into FO membrane unit and was filtered out salt with pressure (Wetterau, 2011.p.10).Consequently, in the second stage, clean water is separated from solution and the draw solution will be reused in FO membrane unit (ibid).
Figure1: Desalination process Sources from: Wetterau( 2011,p.10) 3.2 Water reuse
Water reuse is a sort of water provision method by purifying wastewater to produce clean water (Jiménez et al., 2008, p.4). Water reuse consist of two parts which are pretreatment and secondary treatment (Jiménez et al., 2008, pp.8-10). In pretreatment, the solid inclusions would be filtered out to meet the standard of next stages (ibid). During the second treatment, organic inclusions would be removed by biological decomposition and then clean water is produced (ibid). 4 Requirement of options
According to IMF (2009), Egypt is a developing country, which means the economy strength of Egypt is weak. Moreover, suggested by The Word Bank (2012), the GDP of Egypt is 229.53 billion dollar. Another fact about Egyptian economy is that the current financial balance is -2.6(IMF, 2009). So, if water provision projects are too expensive, Egyptian government may not be able to afford huge financial investment....