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Management: Science, Theory, and
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
۱. Explain the nature and purpose of management.
۲. Understand that management, as used in this book, applies to all kinds of organizations and to managers at all organizational levels.
۳. Recognize that the aim of all managers is to create a surplus. ۴. Identify the trends in information technology and globalization. ۵. Explain the concepts of productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. ۶. Describe the evolution of management and some recent contribution? to management thought.
۷. Describe the various approaches to management, their contributions, as well as their limitations.
Show how the management process, or operational,
management theory and science has a basic core of its own and draws from other approaches.
۹. Realize that managing requires a systems approach and that practice must always take into account situations and contingencies.
۱۰. Define the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.
Management The process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims. www.apple.com
One of the most important human activities is managing. Ever since accomplish aims they could not
people began forming groups to
achieve as individuals, managing has been essential to ensure
coordination of individual efforts. As society has come to rely increasing on group effort, and as many organized groups have become large, task of managers has been rising in importance. The purpose of this book is to promote excellence among all persons in organizations, especially among managers, aspiring managers, and other professionals.*
Definition of Management: Its Nature and Purpose
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims. This basic definition needs to be expanded: • As managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.
• Management applies to any kind of organization.
• It applies to managers at all organizational levels.
• The aim of all managers is the same: to create a surplus. • Managing is concerned with productivity, which implies effectiveness and efficiency. Here are some managers you may know: Steve Jobs at Apple Computer, Bill Ford, Jr., at Ford Motor Company; Scott McNealy of Sun Micro system Jack Welch of General Electric and his successor, Jeff Immelt; Cisco's John Chambers; and Bill Gates of Microsoft. One of the most powerful and undeserving manager was George W. Bush, President of the United States. The Governor of the State of California is also a manager and, in some ways, so is Pope Job Paul II, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the largest global organizations. But middle-level managers and first-line supervisors also make important contributions to the goal of their organizations.
All manage organizations. We define an organization as a group ( people working together to create a surplus. In business organization, this surplus is profit. In nonprofit organizations, such as charitable organizations, it may be satisfaction of needs. Universities also create a surplus through generation and dissemination of knowledge as well as providing service to the community or society * At times, the term nonmanager is used in reference to persons who have no subordinate Thus, nonmanagers include professionals who may have a high status in organizations.
The Functions of Management
Many scholars and managers have found that the analysis of management is facilitated by a useful and clear organization of knowledge. In...
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