The Design School
A process of
Clear and unique strategies are
formulated. The internal situation of
the organisation is used to match
the external environment.
Useful in relatively stable environment
Support strong and visionary
The Planning School
A formal process
A rigorous set of steps are taken,
from the analysis situation to the
execution of the strategy
Gives clear direction.
Enables resource allocation.
An analytical process
It places the business within the
context of its industry and looks at
how the organisation can improve its
strategic positioning within that
A visionary process
The visionary process takes place
within the mind of the charismatic
founder or leader of an organisation.
Rely heavily on intuition, judgement,
wisdom, experience and insight
A sound vision and a visionary CEO can
help organisation to sail cohesively
through muddy waters especially in
early or very difficult years for the
Deliberate in broad line but flexible and
emergent in the details.
Strategic Management is a science.
Provides content in a systematic way to
the existing way of looking at strategy
Focus on hard facts.
Particularly useful in early stage of
strategy development, when date is
Simplification may distort reality.
Strategy has many variables and is inherently
Bypassing learning, inflexible in fast-changing
High risk of resistance
Can become too static
Risk of groupthink
Predicting is difficult
Top Management must create strategy from an
SAME AS PLANNING SCHOOL.
Neglects power, politics, culture, social elements.
Is biased towards large firms.
Ashridge Mission Model
Sailing a predefined course can blind someone
for potential developments or unexpected
How to find the right leader?
Entrepreneurial, visionary leaders have a
tendency to go too fat.
Being a CEO would be very demanding in this
Seven surprises for new
Theory of Mechanistic
and Organic Systems
Levers of Control
The Art of War (Sun Tzu)
Mintzberg’s Ten Schools of Thought about Strategy Formation Model
The Cognitive School
A mental process
Analyses how people perceive
patterns and process information.
Concentrates on what is happening
in the mind of the strategist and how
it processes the information
The Learning School
An emergent process
Management pays close attention
over time to what does work and
what does not work. They
incorporate ‘lessons learned’ into
their overall plan of action.
The world is too complex to allow
strategies to be developed all at
As clear plans or visions.
Strategies must emerge in small
steps as organisation adapts or
The strategy is developed as a
process of negotiation between
power holders within the company,
and/or between the company and its
Tries to involve various groups and
departments within the company.
Strategy formation is viewed as a
fundamentally collective and
The strategy that is developed is a
reflection of the corporate culture of
The Power School
A process of
The Cultural School
A collective process...