We have basic needs which, when not met, cause us to be dissatisfied. Meeting these needs does not make us satisfied, it merely prevents us from becoming dissatisfied. There is a separate set of needs which, when resolved, do make us satisfied. These are called motivators. This theory is also called Herzberg's two-factor theory.
Herzberg asked people about times when they had felt good about their work. He discovered that the key determinants of job satisfaction were Achievement, Recognition, Work itself, Responsibility and Advancement.
He also found that key dissatisfiers were Company policy and administration, Supervision, Salary, Interpersonal relationships and Working conditions. He refers to them as Hygiene factors. Hygiene factors are based on the need for a business to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they can cause dissatisfaction with work.
What struck him the most was that these were separate groups with separate evaluation, and not a part of the same continuum. Thus if the company resolved the dissatisfiers, they would not create satisfaction. Examples of this would be: I need to be paid on time each month so I can pay my bills. If I am not paid on time, I get really unhappy. But when I get paid on time, I hardly notice it. On the other hand, when my boss gives me a pat on the back, I feel good. I don't expect this every day and don't especially miss not having praise all of the time.
According to Herzberg, management should focus on rearranging work so that motivator factors can take effect. He suggested three ways in which this could be done: job enlargement, job rotation and job enrichment. Herzberg’s motivator factors are based on an individual's need for personal growth. When they exist, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. If they are effective, then they can... [continues]
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