Mine

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  • Topic: Philippine Revolution, José Rizal, Katipunan
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Mi último adiós
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The autographed first stanza of "Mi último adiós"
"Mi último adiós" (Spanish for "My Last Farewell") is a poem written by Philippine national hero Dr José Rizal on the eve of his execution on 30 December 1896. This poem was one of the last notes he wrote before his death; another that he had written was found in his shoe but because the text was illegible, its contents remains a mystery.

Contents [hide]
1 Title
2 Political impact
3 Poem
4 Translations
5 See also
6 References
7 Resources
[edit]Title

Rizal did not ascribe a title to his poem. Mariano Ponce, his friend and fellow reformist, titled it Mi Último Pensamiento (My Last Thought) in the copies he distributed, but this did not catch on.

"On the afternoon of Dec. 29, 1896, a day before his execution, Dr. Jose Rizal was visited by his mother, Teodora Alonzo, sisters Lucia, Josefa, Trinidád, Maria and Narcisa, and two nephews. When they took their leave, Rizal told Trinidád in English that there was something in the small alcohol stove (cocinilla), not alcohol lamp (lamparilla). The stove was given to Narcisa by the guard when the party was about to board their carriage in the courtyard. At home, the Rizal ladies recovered from the stove a folded paper. On it was written an unsigned, untitled and undated poem of 14 five-line stanzas. The Rizals reproduced copies of the poem and sent them to Rizal's friends in the country and abroad. In 1897, Mariano Ponce in Hong Kong had the poem printed with the title "Mi Ultimo Pensamiento." Fr. Mariano Dacanay, who received a copy of the poem while a prisoner in Bilibid (jail), published it in the first issue of La Independencia on Sept. 25, 1898 with the title "Ultimo Adios"." [1]

The stove was not delivered until after the execution as Rizal needed it to light the room.

[edit]Political impact

After it was annexed by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was perceived as a community of "barbarians" incapable of self-government. U.S. Representative Henry A. Cooper lobbying for management of Philippine affairs, recited the poem before the American House of Representatives. Realising the nobility of the piece's author, his fellow congressmen enacted the Philippine Bill of 1902 enabling self-government (later known as the Philippine Organic Act of 1902), despite the fact that the United States at that time still had the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act in effect and African Americans has yet to be granted equal rights as US Citizens.[2] It created the Philippine Assembly, appointed two Filipino delegates to the American Congress, extended the US Bill of Rights to Filipinos, and laid the foundation for an autonomous government. The colony was on its way to independence. although relatively complete autonomy would not be granted until 1946 by the Treaty of Manila.

The poem was translated into Bahasa Indonesia by Rosihan Anwar and was recited by Indonesian soldiers before going into battle during the Indonesian National Revolution.[3]

Rosihan Anwar recalled the circumstances of the translation:

“The situation was favorable to promote nationalism. [On 7 September 1944, Prime Minister Koiso of Japan declared that the ‘East Indies’ would become independent soon, an announcement that was received enthusiastically throughout the islands, and got ecstatic treatment in Asia Raja the following day.] In that context, I thought it would be good that I could disseminate this story about Jose Rizal among our younger people at that time. It was quite natural; I thought it would be good to tell the story of Jose Rizal, this rebel against the Spanish. And of course the climax, when he was already sentenced to death and then hauled off to face firing squad, and he wrote that [poem] ….”...
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