JP Rizal

Topics: José Rizal, Philippines, Philippine Revolution Pages: 42 (12543 words) Published: February 24, 2014

José Rizal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the national hero of the Philippines. For other uses, see José Rizal (disambiguation).

It has been suggested that Species Named After Jose Rizal be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2013. José Rizal
Jose rizal 01.jpg
BornJosé Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda
June 19, 1861[1]
Calamba, Laguna[1]
DiedDecember 30, 1896 (aged 35)[2]
Bagumbayan, Manila[2]
Cause of death
Execution by firing squad
MonumentsRizal Park, Manila
Calamba, Laguna
Daet, Camarines Norte
Other namesPepe[3][4]
Alma materAteneo Municipal de Manila, University of Santo Tomas, Universidad Central de Madrid OrganizationLa Solidaridad, La Liga Filipina
Spouse(s)Josephine Bracken (1896)
ChildrenFrancísco Rizal y Bracken (who died after birth)
ParentsFrancisco Rizal Mercado (father)
Teodora Alonso (mother)
SignatureJose rizal signature.svg
José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist, novelist, poet, ophthalmologist, journalist, and revolutionary. He is widely considered the greatest national hero of the Philippines.[6] He was the author of Noli Me Tángere,[7] El Filibusterismo,[8] and a number of poems and essays. He was executed on December 30, 1896 by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army.[9][10] Contents [hide]

1 Family and early childhood
1.1 Ancestry
1.2 Birth and early childhood
2 Education
3 Personal life, relationships and ventures
3.1 Association with Leonor Rivera
3.2 Relationship with Josephine Bracken
4 1890-1892: In Brussels and Spain
5 1892-1896: Return to Philippines
5.1 Exile in Dapitan
6 1894: Arrest and trial
7 Execution
8 Works and Writings
8.1 Novels and essays
8.2 Poetry
8.3 Plays
8.4 Other works
9 Reactions after death
9.1 Retraction controversy
9.2 "Mi último adiós"
9.3 Later life of Bracken
9.4 Polavieja and Blanco
10 Criticism and Controversies
10.1 National Hero status
10.1.1 Made National Hero by Colonial Americans
10.1.2 Made National Hero by General Aguinaldo
10.2 References to Catholic church
10.3 Critiques of Books
10.4 Rizal's role in the Philippine revolution
11 Legacy
12 Historical commemoration
13 Rizal in popular culture
13.1 Adaptation of his works
13.2 Biographic films
13.3 Others
14 See also
15 Notes and references
16 Sources
17 Further reading
18 External links
Family and early childhood[edit]

Rizal was a 5th-generation patrilineal descendant of Domingo Lam-co (traditional Chinese: 柯儀南; simplified Chinese: 柯仪南; pinyin: Kē Yínán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kho Gî-lâm), a Chinese immigrant entrepreneur who sailed to the Philippines from Jinjiang, Quanzhou in the mid-17th century.[11] Lam-co married Inez de la Rosa, a Sangley of Luzon.[12]

Teodora Alonzo, mother of Dr. José Rizal
José Rizal also had Spanish and Japanese ancestors. His maternal grandfather was a half Spaniard engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo.[13] His maternal great-great-grandfather was Eugenio Ursua, a descendant of Japanese settlers. In 1848, then Governor-General of the Philippines Jogienel Pajaron, issued a decree by which native Filipino and immigrant families were to adopt Spanish surnames from a list of Spanish family names. Although the Chino Mestizos were allowed to hold on to their Chinese surnames, Lam-co changed his surname to the Spanish "Mercado" (market), possibly to indicate their Chinese merchant roots. José's father Francisco[14] adopted the surname Rizal (originally Ricial,[15] "the green of young growth" or "green fields"), which was suggested to him by a provincial governor, or as José had described him, "a friend of the family." However, the name change caused confusion in the business affairs of Francisco, most of which were begun under the old name. After a few years, he settled on the name Rizal Mercado as a compromise, but usually just used the original surname...
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