Microbiology Study Guide

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Study Guide Notes ¡V Test 1

CHAPTER 1
1.Linnaeus ¡V naming system
Hooke ¡V cells in cork
Van Leeuwenhoek ¡V animalcules (1st obs. of live microorganisms) Redi ¡V experiment to disprove spontaneous generation ¡V meat Needham ¡V experiment to prove spontaneous generation ¡V broth (vital force) Spallanzani ¡V heated broth did not develop microbial growth Virchow ¡V biogenesis (living can only arise from preexisting living) Pasteur ¡V air contained, but did not produce, microbes (broth, s-flasks); pasteurization; lose virility, still immunity Lister ¡V aseptic surgery (phenol on surgical wounds)

Koch ¡V cause of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) ¡V bacteria in blood, injected into healthy, died, compared bacteria Jenner ¡V vaccines (cowpox provided immunity against small pox) ¡V milk maids Erlich ¡V ¡§magic bullet¡¨; salvarsan against syphilis

Fleming ¡V Penicillium chrysogenum inhibited bacteria growth in plate Beadle & Tatum ¡V one gene one enzyme hypothesis
Avery, MacLeod & McCarty ¡V DNA = hereditary material
Tatum & Lederberg ¡V conjugation
Watson & Crick ¡V aa model for structure/replication of DNA Jacob & Monod ¡V mRNA
Beijerinck & Winogradsky ¡V microbial ecology

2.Naming: Latinized, Genus 1st - always caps, species 2nd - always lower case, both underlined or italics; descriptive 3.Characteristics
a.Prokaryotes
i.Bacteria
1.Many shapes: bacillus (rods), coccus (sphere), spirilla (spiral) 2.Individually or in groups
3.Reproduce by binary fission
ii.Archaea
1.Cell walls NO PEPTIDOGLYCAN
2.Shares characteristics with bacteria and euk, but diff from each 3.Often in extreme environments
4.3 groups:
a.methanogens (produce methane)
b.extreme thermophiles (hot sulfurous water)
c.extreme halophiles (very salty environments)
b.Eukaryotes
i.Fungi
1.Multi- or Uni-cellular (yeasts)
2.Cell walls mostly chitin
3.Typical fungi = molds
a.Form mycelia, composted of hyphae
4.Reproduce sexually or asexually
ii.Protozoa
1.Unicellular
2.Move via:
a.Pseudopods (extensions of cytoplasm)
b.Flagella (whiplike)
c.Cilia (shorter)
3.Free or as parasite
4.Sexual or asexual
iii.Algae
1.photosynthetic
2.variety of shapes
3.sexual and asexual reproductive forms
4.cell walls composed of cellulose (like plants)
5.take co2, sunlight, h20 ¡V create oxygen and carbs (imp. In balance of environment)
iv.Viruses
1.Very diff. from other microbes
2.Very small ¡V need electron microscope
3.Acellular
a.Nucleic acid core
b.Protein coat
c.Some also have envelope
4.Obligate intracellular parasite ¡V need host cell to survive & replicate v.Animal Parasites
4.Cell Structure
a.Eukaryotic

b.Prokaryotic

CHAPTER 4
1.Bacterial cell
a.Shapes
i.Cocci (sphere)
ii.Bacilli (rod)
iii.Spirlilla (spiral)
iv.Stella (star)
v.Haloarcula (square)
b.Arrangements
i.Diplo- (pairs)
ii.Staphylo- (clusters)
iii.Strepto- (chains)
2.Cell Structures
a.Prokaryotic
i.OUTSIDE cell wall
1.glucocalyx ¡V sticky
a.capsule ¡V organized, prevents phagocytosis
b.slime layer ¡V unorganized, loose
c.polysaccharide allows cell to attach
2.flagella (cells w/o flagella are atrichous) (proteins are H antigens ¡V E. coli O157:H7) a.made of chains of flagellin
b.attached to protein hook
c.anchored to cell wall & plasma membrane by basal body
d.4 arrangements
i.monotrichous ¡V single, polar
ii.amphitrichous ¡V tuft at each end
iii.lophotrichous ¡V 2 or more at one or both ends
iv.peritrichous ¡V distributed over entire cell
e.movement ¡V rotate flagella (run or tumble)
i.chemotaxis ¡V movement towards specific chemical
ii.phototaxis ¡V movement towards light
f.axial filament (spirochetes) aka endoflagella
i.beneath outer sheath
ii.spirals around cell (corkscrew)
g.fimbriae
i.G- only
ii.Attachment
iii.At poles, or evenly distributed
h.Pili
i.Longer than fimbria
ii.Only 1 or 2 per cell
iii.Xfer DNA from cell to...
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