Study Guide: Microbiology

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Microbiology, Test 3 Study Guide
Chapters 14, 15, 16 and 17

Chapter 14
This chapter is about the principles of disease and epidemiology.

Epidemiology – the science that studies when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted. CDC, Atlanta, tracks and traces diseases. ONE World (the idea that it’s all in one place, it could happen anywhere; locally, states, large counties track the incidences and occurrences of disease)

Pathology – scientific study of disease.

Pathogenesis – the manner in which a disease develops

Pathogen – disease causing organism (from worms to prions, viruses, or bacteria)

Pathogenicity – the ability of a microorganism to cause disease by overcoming the defenses of a host

Pathologist – one who examines diseased tissue to find out the cause and eventually the prevention

Etiology – the cause of the disease, virus, bacteria, chemical

Virulence – the probability that a microbe will cause disease

Disease – infection which results in a change from a state of health

Infection - the invasion or colonization of the body by pathogenic MCOs ; not normal fluora, Infectious disease specialist treats the disease

Normal Microbiotica or normal flora. Pick up shortly after birth, canal, inoculated by people and surroundings; no two are the same; lives on us at all times, harder to wash away than transient flora

symbiotic relationship – two or more organisms living together (fungus and algus=lichen)

Mutualism - all benefit (E. Coli makes vitamin K)

Commensalism – one benefits, the other is not harmed (cattle, birds, grass)

Parasitism - one benefits, the other is harmed (worms or protozoan, virus)

Transients - temporary residents, moving a lot, 1 hour to 3 months, could be MRSA

Opportunistic pathogens – normally do not cause disease; hanging out anyway, but could cause disease if there is a cut that allows entry into your system
Compromised host – can be a secondary infection when one is compromised by a primary infection, (bacterial pneumonia) HIV, such a weakened immune system that it overcomes the immune system

Accidental pathogen – we are not the microbes usual host; Legionnaire’s disease – moist, warm air ducts, water system, shower, can breathe them into our lungs and cause infection, can’t pass it on, but can have it, not communicable

Attenuation – weakened, not as virulent; killed viruses, naturally becomes weak or causes less of a disease, polio vaccine used to be an attenuated version and it caused the disease, or a weakened version of polio

Communicable disease can be spread from host to host directly or indirectly

Contagious diseases - can easily be spread from host to host – think chicken pox or measles

Noncommunicable disease - cannot be transmitted from host to host; Tetnus, Clostridium tetani; Legionnaire’s disease

Epidemiology terminology
Epidemiology – the study of the occurrence, distribution, and control of diseases within a population (in contact with each other, geography; Chicago, IL, US, North America)
Incidence of disease (or incidence rate) - the fraction of a population that contracts the disease during a particular time period (as in 1 per 100,000 or cases of chicken pox in Dec 2011)

Prevalence of a disease = morbidity (not death); the fraction of a population having the disease at a specific time (whether they just contracted it or if they have had it for 5 years); think chronic illness, dealing with it for a long time

Endemic disease - a disease that is always present within a population, like the common cold, or how...
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