Emilio Aguinaldo was born on 23 March 1869[b] in Cavite Viejo (present-day Kawit), Cavite, to Carlos Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy,[c] a Chinese mestizo couple who had eight children, the seventh of whom was Emilio. The Aguinaldo family was quite well-to-do, as Carlos Aguinaldo was the community's appointed gobernadorcillo (municipal governor)
Emilio became the cabeza de barangay of Binakayan, a chief barrio of Cavite del Viejo, when he was only 17 years old.
In 1895 a law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted. At the age of 26 Aguinaldo became Cavite Viejo's first capitan municipal.
Emilio Aguinaldo married Hilaria Del Rosario in 1896. Their children were Miguel, Carmen, Emilio Jr., Maria and Cristina. After his wife's death Aguinaldo married Maria Agoncillo in 1930.
On 1 January 1896 he married Hilaria Del Rosario (1877–1921), and the couple had five children: Carmen Aguinaldo Melencio, Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr, Maria Aguinaldo Poblete, Cristina Aguinaldo and Suntay Miguel Aguinaldo. Hilaria died of leprosy on 6 March 1921 at the age of 45.
In 1894, Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan or the K.K.K., a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force.(p77) Aguinaldo used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene.(p179) His local chapter of the Katipunan, headed by his cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, was also called Magdalo.
The Katipunan revolt against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte (now part of Metro Manila).(p176) However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive alleging lack of arms. Their absence contributed to Bonifacio's defeat. While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare, Aguinaldo and the Cavite rebels won major victories in set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area.
Bonifacio refused to recognize the revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo and attempted to reassert his authority, accusing the Aguinaldo faction of treason and by issuing orders contravening orders issued by the Aguinaldo faction.(p188) At Aguinaldo's orders, Bonifacio and his brothers were arrested and, in a mock trial lasting one day, convicted of treason, and sentenced to death.(pp189–190) After some vacillation, Aguinaldo commuted the death sentence, but cancelled his commutation order after being convinced by General Manuel Noriel, President of the Council of War, and others prominent in his government that the death sentence must stand. Andrés and Procopio were executed by firing squad on 10 May 1897 at Mount Hulog, about four kilometers west of Maragondon, Cavite. Presidency
The insurgent First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on 21 January 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan and endured until the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on 23 March 1901 in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic. Aguinaldo appointed two premiers in his tenure. These were Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno. Domestic policies
The Malolos Congress continued its sessions and accomplished certain positive tasks. The Spanish fiscal system was provisionally retained. The same was done with the existing taxes, save those upon cockfighting and other amusements. War taxes were levied and voluntary contributions were solicited. Customs duties were established. A national loan was launched. Education initiative
Aguinaldo ordered schools open. Elementary education was made compulsory and free. The Filipino educator Enrique Mendiola founded the "Instituto de Burgos" and were appointed by the Director of Public Instruction. It offered courses in agriculture, surveying and commerce, as well as a com of the "Universidad Literia".[? clarification...
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