Metabolism and Enzymes

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Study Guide for Unit V Energy and Enzymes.

What is cellular work? Why must living things utilize energy with maximum efficiency? Define energy. Why do living things need a constant input of energy? Where does all energy in the biosphere originate? Define kinetic and potential energy. (Give biological examples). What are the two laws of thermodynamics? Give examples. What is entropy and what is the law of entropy? How do living things resist the law of entropy? Give biological examples. Define metabolism, catabolism and anabolism. What is free energy? What is an exergonic and endergonic reaction? What is G for these two reactions? What are the characteristics of each of these reactions? Define the ATP/ADP cycle. What is a coupled reaction? What does a coupled reaction allow? What can ATP be used for? What is a metabolic pathway? What are enzymes? What type of molecule are enzymes? What do enzymes do in a metabolic pathway? Where are enzymes of a specific metabolic pathway often located? What is a benefit of cells using metabolic pathways? What is the energy of activation. How are enzymes related to the energy of activation of a reaction? How do enzymes increase the rate of a chemical reaction? Show how enzymes work. What is a substrate? Why are enzymes specific for specific reactions? What is a degradation and a synthesis reaction? Explain the induced fit model of enzyme function. How are enzymes named? How does substrate concentration influence the rate of an enzyme reaction? What are two ways an enzyme can be regulated? What is enzyme inhibition, give an example. Explain how a metabolic pathway can be regulated. What are cofactors? What are coenzymes? What is oxidation? What is reduction? What is an oxidation/reduction reaction? How is hydrogen related to oxidation/reduction reactions? Explain how oxidation/reduction is related to photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Is glucose our only fuel for respiration? Explain.
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