Fundamentals processes relating to memory
1. Encoding – the process by which information is initially recorded in the memory 2. Storage – the maintenance of material saved in the memory 3. Retrieval –when the material in the memory storage is located, brought into awareness and used.
Three kinds of memory storage systems (Memory Storehouses)
1. Sensory Memory – the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant 2. Short-term memory – which holds information for 15 to 25 seconds 3. Long-term memory- which store information on a relatively permanent basis
*Short- term memory has a very limited capacity, the limit is 7 + 2 items of chunks of information.
A chunk is a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory.
Rehearsal allows transfer of information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
Two kinds of rehearsal:
Repetition Rehearsal – which keeps information active in short-term memory
Elaborative Rehearsal – which allows processing of the meaning of information
Mnemonics – by using organizational strategies; retention of information can be improved
Three components of Short-term memory
1. Central Executive –coordinates the material to focus on during reasoning and decision making 2. Visuospatial Sketch Pad –concentrates on visual and spatial information 3. Phonological Loop – is responsible for holding and manipulating material related to speech, words and numbers
Several Different Components, Memory Modules or System of Long-Term Memory 1. Declarative Memory – is for factual information
2. Nondeclarative Memory – is a memory for skills,habits and conditioning 3. Proceduaral Memory –involves blueprints for behaviors necessary for the organism to adapt to the environment 4. Semantic Memory-includes specialized knowledge about the world 5. Episodic Memory –which involves memories for specific epesiodes in the past life that have personal relevance
Two forms of Memory:
1. Explicit Memory- refers to intentional or conscious recollection of information 2. Implicit Memory- refers to memories of which people are not consciously aware
Retrieval cues – allow us to recall more easily information that is located in long-term memory
It could be a word, a sound, or an emotion that suddenly comes to mind
Constructive process –when we retrieve information, the memory produced is affected not only by the direct prior experience we have had but by our guesses and inferences about its meaning as well
Flashbulb memories – memories entered around a specific,important,or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they presented a snapshot of this event
Repressed memories –are recollections of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious and may remain hidden,possibly throughout the person’s lifetime
Autobiographical memories- our collections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives
*Memories of past experiences maybe a distortion of what actually occurred, especially those experiences that are troubling or traumatic.
Remembering and Forgetting
Remembering- the learning process implies a certain degree of retention or remembering; defined as persistence of learning after practice has ceased A. Kinds of Remembering:
a) Reintegration- to reestablish an earlier experience on a basis of partial cues b) Recall – simple revival of past experience
c) Recognition – involves recognizing someone or something as familiar d) Relearning-involves more rapid learning than before on the basis of some retention from earlier learning B. TOT (Tip-of-the-tongue) Phenomenon
TOT is a situation where – in the process of recalling, we could not immediately recall the exact word or name although it seems at the tip of the tongue. It eventually leads to successful...