Jeanne Schreurs ,Universiteit Hasselt, Belgium ,Rachel Moreau, Universiteit Hasselt, Belgium
The EFQM model of quality management is a universal model and is applied in this paper in the school context for the organisation of e-courses. We identified some quality criteria in this EFQM school quality model. We defined a simplified e-learning EFQM model supporting the evaluation by the learner. Based on it a questionnaire has been structured that can be used for the evaluation by the learner.
1. Introduction: Quality management in e-learning
1.1. The organisation of e-learning
E-courses are organised by e-learning services companies, by a company’s training department and by educational institutes or schools /universities. 1.2. Quality of e-learning
It is challenging to support and enhance quality management in e-learning. The need for quality management in e-learning has risen since the use of e-learning has expanded. We have to find answers on the following questions: how is quality defined, How can quality be assessed? The same principles apply to quality of e-learning as in the quality of teaching and learning in general. However, there are some special characteristics in e-learning that need to be specified. Quality management has to cover the teaching and learning, including the organization of the learning process, the learning content and the pedagogical and technical support for e-learning including equipment and facilities. Quality criteria have to be defined for those areas.
2. The EFQM Excellence Model of total quality management
The EFQM Excellence Model is a practical tool to help organizations do this by measuring where they are on the path to excellence, helping them understand the gaps and then stimulating solutions. The EFQM Excellence Model is a non-prescriptive framework based on 9 criteria. Five of these are 'Enablers' and four are 'Results'. The 'Enabler' criteria cover what an organization does. The 'Results' criteria cover what an organization achieves. 'Results' are caused by 'Enablers' and 'Enablers' are improved using feedback from 'Results'. Each of the nine criteria is supported by a number of subcriteria. Those pose a number of questions that should be considered in the course of an assessment. For example in the criteria leadership, focus is on the way management can motivate and stimulate the organization to evolve to continuous improvement. Some questions: How is management engaged in creating a culture of continuous improvement? How is management supporting the improvement activities? How is management evaluating and motivating the staff? The EFQM Model is presented in diagram form below. The arrows emphasize the dynamic nature of the Model. They show innovation and learning helping to improve enablers that in turn lead to improved results
Figure 1: The EFQM excellence model
3. Kirkpatrick e-learning evaluation model
D. Kirkpatrick presented a four-level model of quality assessment, that can be applied to traditional way of learning and also to e-learning. • Students’ reaction: students are asked to evaluate the training after completing the program. First is asked how well they like the training. But other questions are about the relevance of and the fitting to the objectives, the quality of the included interactive exercises, the ease of navigation, … Learning results: has the learner increased his knowledge of the topic? What about the achievement? Impact of learning on the functioning in the workplace: Are any of the new knowledge and skills retained and transferred back on the job? Is the student’s behaviour changed as a result of new learning? Impact of learning on the business results: the evaluation of the business impact of the training must be measured.
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4. The application of the EFQM quality model within the school context for the organisation of e-courses 4.1. Key terms within a school context This...