MBA SEMESTER 1 MB0040 – STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT- 4 Credits (Book ID: B1129) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions

1. (a) ‘Statistics is the backbone of decision-making’. Comment. [ 5 marks] (b) Give plural meaning of the word Statistics? [ 5 marks]

2. a. In a bivariate data on ‘x’ and ‘y’, variance of ‘x’ = 49, variance of ‘y’ = 9 and covariance (x,y) = -17.5. Find coefficient of correlation between ‘x’ and ‘y’. [ 5 marks] b. Enumerate the factors which should be kept in mind for proper planning. [ 5 marks] 3. The percentage sugar content of Tobacco in two samples was represented in table 11.11. Test whether their population variances are same. [ 10 marks] Table 1. Percentage sugar content of Tobacco in two samples Sample A Sample B 2.4 2.7 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.1 2.8 3.1 2.5 2.2 3.6

4. a. Explain the characteristics of business forecasting. [ 5 marks] b. Differentiate between prediction, projection and forecasting. [ 5 marks] 5. What are the components of time series? Bring out the significance of moving average in analysing a time series and point out its limitations. [ 10 marks] 6. List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them? [ 5 marks] b. What is a confidence interval, and why it is useful? What is a confidence level? [ 5 marks]

Fall 2011- August drive

MBA SEMESTER 1 MB0040 – STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT- 4 Credits (Book ID: B1129) Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions 1. (a) What are the characteristics of a good measure of central tendency? [ 5 marks] (b) What are the uses of averages? [ 5 marks] 2. Calculate the 3 yearly and 5 yearly averages of the data in table below. [ 10 marks] Table 1: Production data from 1988 to 1997 Year 1988 198 199 199 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 199 9 0 1 7 18 16 22 19 24 20 28 22 30

...MBA SEMESTER 1
MB0040 – STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT
Assignment
Roll No.
1- Statistical survey is a scientific process of collection and analysis of numerical data used to collect information about units.
Questionnair and schedule are both methods of collecting data in statistical survey. At questionnair the questions is sent by mail to respondents to fill it and send it back. At schedule the questions is filled by the enumerator.
Questionnair is a cheaper process than schedule when it was in a large samples or population. Questionnair should be filled by litrate and cooperative but scheduke is filled enumurator. Risk of misunderstanding of quwstions in questionnair is more than schedule.
2- Data representation of family expenditure using Pie Chart
3-
X = X1*n1 + X2*n2
n1 +n2
where X = Combined arithmetic mean = 10.9
X1 = arithmetic mean of sample (1) = 10.4 and n1 = No. of sample (1) = 100
X2 = arithmetic mean of sample (1) = ? and n1 = No. of sample (2) = 150
So… 10.9 = 10.4 * 100 + X2 * 150
100 + 150
2725 = 1040 + X2 * 150 1685 = X2 * 150
X2 = 11.23
So the average weight of screws of box B = 11.23
4- (a) As a decision maker in many cases you have to take action about implementing, producing or manufacturing either of one or two or some times more course of actions. With the help of rules of probability...

...successful that after World War II many companies used similar techniques in
managerial decision making and planning.
The decision making task of modern management is more demanding and more important
than ever. Many organisations employ operations research or management science personnel or
consultants to apply the principles of scientiﬁc management to problems and decision making.
In this module we focus on a number of useful models and techniques that can be used in the
decision making process. Two important themes run through the study guide: data analysis and
decision making techniques.
Firstly we look at data analysis. This approach starts with data that are manipulated or processed
into information that is valuable to decision making. The processing and manipulation of raw
data into meaningful information are the heart of data analysis. Data analysis includes data
description, data inference, the search for relationships in data and dealing with uncertainty
which in turn includes measuring uncertainty and modelling uncertainty explicitly.
In addition to data analysis, other decision making techniques are discussed. These techniques
include decision analysis, project scheduling and network models.
Chapter 1 illustrates a number of ways to summarise the information in data sets, also known as
descriptive statistics. It includes graphical and tabular summaries, as well as summary measures
such as...

...Answers
Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 1
MB0040 - Statistics for Management
Q1. A Explain the characteristics of statistics?
B. What are the components of statistics? Give a brief description of each of its component’s?
Answer: (A) Some of its important characteristics are given below:
* Statistics are aggregates of facts.
* Statistics are numerically expressed.
* Statistics are affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes.
* Statistics are enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy.
* Statistics are collected for a predetermine purpose.
* Statistics are collected in a systemic manner.
* Statistics must be comparable to each other.
Answer Components of Statistics:
• Gathering
• Displaying
• Interpretation
• Inference
Gathering data, whether in or out of a classroom, occurs on a daily basis. We are always observing and processing information as we go about the routine of our day. At this level data is like a pile of clothing that has just come from a dryer. When we sort the clothing we can see some order; in the same sense we see order in data when it can be displayed.
Displaying information occurs when we wish to communicate our data or when we want to make decisions about them. These displays can...

...1 Statistics plays a vital role in almost every facet of human life. Describe the functions of Statistics.Explain the applications of statistics.
Meaning of statistics
Functions of statistics
Applications of statistics.
Ans:Statistics plays an important role in almost every facet of human life. In business context, managers are required to justify decisions on the basis of data. They need statistical models to support these decisions. Statistical skills enable managers to collect, analyse and interpret data in order to take suitable decisions.
Defination of statistics. “Statistics is a science which deals with the method of collecting, classifying, presenting, comparing and interpreting the numerical data to throw light on enquiry”. – Seligman
Prof. Boddington, on the other hand, defined Statistics as “The science of estimates and probabilities”2. This definition is not complete.
According to Croxton and Cowden, “Statistics is the science of collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data from logical analysis”3.
Function of statistics: Statistics is used for various purposes. It is used to simplify mass data and to make comparisons easierLet us look at each function of Statistics in detail.
1. Statistics simplifies mass data
The use of statistical concepts...

...SUMMER-2015
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Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 1
MB0040–Statistics for Management-4 Credits
(Book ID: B1731)
Assignment (60 Marks)
Note: Answer all questions (with 300 to 400 words each) must be written within 6-8 pages. Each Question carries 10 marks 6 X 10=60
Q1. Distinguish between Classification and Tabulation. Explain the structure and components of a Table with an example.
• Meaning of Classification and Tabulation
• Differences between Classification and Tabulation
• Structure and Components of a Table with an example
Answer. Meaning of Classification and Tabulation
Classification
According to Secrist, “Classification is the process of arranging data into sequences and groups according to their common characteristics or separating them into different but related parts”. According to Stockton and Clark, “The process of grouping large number of individual facts and observations, on the basis of similarity among the items is called Classification”.
Tabulation
Tabulation follows classification. It is a logical or systematic listing of related data in rows and columns. The row of
Q2. (a) Explain Arithmetic mean.
(b) The mean wage is Rs. 75 per day, SD wage is Rs. 5 per day for a group of 1000 workers and the same is Rs. 60 and Rs. 4.5 for the other group of 1500 workers. Find the mean and...

...sample? [5 Marks]
Answer:
(a) Qualitative data deals with meanings while quantitative data deals with numbers. Qualitative data describes properties or characteristics that are used to identify things. Quantitative data describes data in terms of quantity using the numerical figure accompanied by measurement unit. Statistics deals only with quantitative data.
Statistics deals with numerical data, which can be expressed in terms of quantitative measurements. So, the qualitative phenomenon like beauty, intelligence cannot be expressed numerically and any statistical analysis cannot be directly applied on these qualitative phenomena. But Statistical techniques may be applied indirectly by first reducing the qualitative data to accurate quantitative terms. For example, the intelligence of a group of students can be studied on the basis of their marks in a particular examination.
i) The number of transactions occurring in an ATM per day -- Quantitative data
ii) The popular brand name in cars is Maruthi. – Qualitative data
If want to do statistic in a particular area and interviewed everyone then it is called as population and if you doing statistic analysis for a town and interviewed only 15 neighborhoods then it is called that interviewing a sample from town. It is also called “chunk” which refers to the fraction of the population being investigated which is selected neither by probability nor by...

...population with a specific distribution.
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is based on the empirical distribution function (ECDF). Given N ordereddata points Y1, Y2, ..., YN, the ECDF is defined as
\[ E_{N} = n(i)/N \]
where n(i) is the number of points less than Yi and the Yiare ordered from smallest to largest value. This is a step function that increases by 1/N at the value of each ordered data point.
The graph below is a plot of the empirical distribution function with a normal cumulative distribution function for 100 normal random numbers. The K-S test is based on the maximum distance between these two curves.
Characteristics and Limitations of the K-S TestAn attractive feature of this test is that the distribution of the K-S test statistic itself does not depend on the underlying cumulative distribution function being tested. Another advantage is that it is an exact test (the chi-square goodness-of-fit test depends on an adequate sample size for the approximations to be valid). Despite these advantages, the K-S test has several important limitations:
1. It only applies to continuous distributions.
2. It tends to be more sensitive near the center of the distribution than at the tails.
3. Perhaps the most serious limitation is that the distribution must be fully specified. That is, if location, scale, and shape parameters are estimated from the data, the critical region of the K-S test is no longer valid. It typically must be determined by simulation....

...of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N
200
Sum
21430
From the table above, the total number of passengers for route 1 is 44,266, route 2 is 29,131 and route 3 is 21,430 and the total numbers of passengers for 3 routes are 94,827.
Although route 1 has the highest number of passengers and flights but it has the lowest means of passengers among the 3 routes. From...