Types of drama in numerous cultures were probably the first mass-media, going back into the Ancient World. The first dated printed book known is the "Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 AD, although it is clear that books were printed earlier. Movable clay type was invented in 1041 in China. However, due to the slow spread of literacy to the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass-medium was probably European popular prints from about 1400. Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about 1600 have not survived. Johannes Gutenberg printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in 1453. This invention transformed the way the world received printed materials, although books remained too expensive really to be called a mass-medium for at least a century after that. Newspapers developed around from 1612, with the first example in English in 1620  ; but they took until the nineteenth century to reach a mass-audience directly. During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology that allowed the massive duplication of material. Physical duplication technologies such as printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time. Mass media had the economics of linear replication: a single work could make money An example of Riel and Neil's theory. proportional to the number of copies sold, and as volumes went up, unit costs went down, increasing profit margins further. Vast fortunes were to be made in mass media. In a democratic society, independent media serve electorate about issues regarding government and corporate entities (see Media influence). Some consider the concentration of media ownership to be a grave threat to democracy. Purposes
Mass media can be used for various purposes:
•Advocacy, both for business and social concerns. This can include advertising, marketing, propaganda, public relations, and political communication. •Entertainment, traditionally through performances of acting, music, and sports, along with light reading; since the late 20th century also through video and computer games. •Public service announcements.
Negative characteristics of mass media
Another description of Mass Media is central media which implies: •An inability to transmit tacit knowledge (or perhaps it can only transfer bad tacit). •The manipulation of large groups of people through media outlets, for the...