For a long time, it was thought that the proton, neutron, and electron were the elementary particles, as well as the smallest. Since the Atomic Theory was formulated, many new particles have been discovered. The new theories concerning these particles and predicted particles attempts to explain every phenomena in physics. This is also called the Universal Theory of Matter.
Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Dark matter is an assumed kind of matter which unlike ordinary matter does not emit or reflect enough light, X-rays or other electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, it is not directly detectable by our instruments. However many astrophysical evidences points to the presence of such matter. In fact dark matter supposedly is much more abundant than ordinary matter. The amount of observable matter in our Milky Way galaxy is only about twenty percent of the mass that is needed to keep the system stable and holds on to the stars in the outer orbits of the galaxy. Therefore, it is conjectured that %80 percent of the matter in the Milky Way galaxy is dark matter. NASA speculates the origin and nature of dark matter as:
“Dark matter has been a nagging problem for astronomy for more than 30 years. Stars within galaxies and galaxies within clusters move in a way that indicates there is more matter there than we can see. This unseen matter seems to be in a spherical halo that extends probably 10 times farther than the visible stellar halo around galaxies. Early proposals that the invisible matter is comprised of burnt-out stars or heavy neutrinos have not panned out, and the current favorite candidates are exotic particles variously called neutrilinos, axions or other hypothetical super symmetric particles. Because these exotic particles interact with ordinary matter through gravity only, not via electromagnetic waves, they emit no light.”38
The concept of dark matter has been presented because the observable mass of galaxies has failed to equal the needed gravity to keep them stable. Gravity has to counteract the centrifugal force of stars in outer orbits in order to keep them stable in their place. So we assumed a kind of unobservable mass, which provides the needed extra space-wrapping. It is difficult to figure out how concentrated localized globes of dark matter can be distributed across a galaxy and be able to establish the harmonic orbits of billions of stars contained in it. Such a matter has to be diffused in every point of galaxy to exhibit such an effect. It is the current belief that 90% of dark matter is in the shape of particles and shows at spherical halo around the galaxies.
To find the particles creating dark matter, Physicists are looking from Machos to Neutrinos. Here is another speculation based on proposed model. Can the gravity attributed to dark matter originate from the Planck arena activities? Zero point energy effect can create pair of short life particles. Nevertheless, they will have enough life-time to exert the necessary gravity effect.
Accumulative gravitational effect of countless short lived particles may count for dark matter effect. Maybe we do not need to look for origin of neutrinos at the beginning of time. Maybe particles do not need to be made only at the Big Bang era. Maybe every single pore in space-time universe (Planck space) has the potential to produce mass at any time. Please note the further we go from the center of galaxy the more disperse the stars are. This of course means less gravity from visible mass at the center of galaxy and more angular velocity and centrifugal force for the stars in periphery. At the same time more empty space to exhibit the above assumed counter-effect.
In his recent (March 2005) article “Black holes ‘do not exist’” George Chapline from Lawrence Livermore, National Laboratory in California published in Nature38 mentioned that collapse of big stars creates a zone which...