Managing Across Culture

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Managing across culture
Introduction
Globalization makes the world become to be a big family. More and more international company appears in the social. While in the same times, people from different countries or different culture start to work together. How to make the staffs from different culture to work together become a core problem facing by the company. By facing the conflict and difference between different culture, to find out a way to effectively manage across culture become more helpful to the company. According to Hofstede (1980), he point out in Economic Integration, all the company around the world is to find out the way how to meet the need of the market and satisfied their customers. To have the effective strategies, we have to do the research for the across culture. Hofstede (1980) identified four main cultural dimensions; they are Power Distance, Individualism&Collectivism, Uncentainty Avoidance and masculinity. Hofstede’s national cultural framework can effectively evaluate the cultural difference across countries. According to John (1980), in the Hofstede’s four main cultural dimension, Collectivism-individualism (COL-IND) cultural variability has the great impact on the intergroup behaviors. In this report, (CO-IND) is emphasized throughout the work.

Main findings:
Masculine
According to Wacker and Sprague (1998), it is important to identify the Masculine across culture. People in Masculine national culture, they are more focus on the effectiveness in having advantage over competors to support them making decision, while on the contrast, people from feminine countries they tend to look for widely information to support decision.

Power distance
According to Hofstede (1980), power distance is measuring the level of the power difference in one organization, it is norm in the social society. Power distance is normally related to power level, leadership and decision making. Flynn and Saladin (2006) attribute great difference to power distance. Countries with high power distance, the decision making and the power are centralized. People in low power are relying on the leader, in this situation, manager of the decision making, and the employ just accept and complete the task. In the low power organization, all the decision making are participate and influenced by all the employees.

Uncertainty avoidance
Uncertainty avoidance is how the society feels the level of threat of the uncertainty and ambiguity. Broader issues of intergroup behavior are related to the score of uncertainty. Member of culture high in uncertainty avoidance are pleased to accept the task which the managers given, they prefer the clear direction, so in the high uncertainty avoidance organization, the organization tending to set more job rules, procedures or the policy to deal with uncertainty. The management more focuses on the work and task itself. For the uncertain things, they will feel stress and anxiety, and it is hardly for them to accept deviant ideas and behaviors (Hofstede, 1979). While people in low cultural avoidance are more relax, they can easily accept dissent and taking the risk. In the low uncertainty avoidance organization, they are less emphasis the job rules and standards. In any society, people will fell anxiety on the uncertain, unclear and untouchable things, so people are trying to prevent this kind of things to happen. They are quite some methods to prevent, like encouraging staff taking part in the decision making, or having the permanent contract, they are all will make the staff fell stable. National culture in low uncertainty avoidance doesn’t like formal rules, the company only setting the rules when its really necessary.

Individualism
Snell and Hui (2000) stress the importance of the difference between Individualism and Collectivism. People form individualist countries are confident and supposed to talking care of themselves and their immediate family only. Personal right and Autonomous are...
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