Department of Leadership and Management
Management Work and Society BHO0007
Hong Kong Management Association
Title of the project: Occupational Choice
Lecturer Name: Chris Collins
Student Name: Yiu Ka Ming, Bryan
Student Number: u0976190
Date Due: 21st February, 2011
Table of Content
Chapter no. Title of Chapter Page no.
1. Introduction including definitions of national and 3 - 4 organizational culture. Comment on the link between national culture and organizational structure/ culture. Implications for managers - the Chinese Dimension.
2. Review of the academic literature on a national culture of my choice. 4 - 5 Hofstede, Laurent, Trompennars, Halls and Kluckhohn-Strodbeck.
3. Options for Cross Culture Working 5 - 7 -Influence on choice of approach;
4. Risk Vs Control. 7 - 8
5. Cross culture managerial skills. 8 - 9
6. Implications for a HK manager working in my chosen country. 9 – 10 Trompenaars plus two other theorists.
7. Adaptation, recruitment & selection, training, reward and support 10 - 11 are applied to a HK manager.
8. Conclusions 11 - 12
9. Bibliography 12 - 13
Mead and Andrew (2009) identified that there were three definitions of organizational culture. First of all, the organizational culture is the product of structures, systems and regulations, planned and imposed by management. But most of the time, these are inefficient and ineffective within their organizations as they do only the superficial changes. Not only these may not make workforce devote themselves to “go the extra mile” but may rather demoralize them. Next, organizational culture is “how thing done within the organization” and “way of behaviors”. It is quite difficult for managers to make change on the embedded culture. If the workforce is confident of their management, the change will relatively easy be made. Otherwise, it may cause resentment or demoralization. At last, the organizational culture is a continual process of negotiation. As long as the members of the organization feel that the changes will benefit them, the changes are termed as success. Otherwise, alternative processes and procedures are necessary. Mead and Andrew (2009) identified that national culture is one of environmental factors. Management is seldom capable to exert control over it. The national culture is particular to one group and not others. It influences the behavior of group members in uniform and predictable ways. It passed down from one generation to the next. It includes systems of values. It is learned, and is not innate. It has impacts on organizational structure as well as culture, relationship within organizations, managerial processes, practices and skills needed. Kluckhohn and Strodbeck (1961) indicated that national culture is related to human nature - good person is entertained and bad guy is harshly treated; to the world – some people think that they are “king of the world” and can override or overcome everything including the irresistible power of nature; to human activities – some countries need people to work hard for money and status but some need not do so; to other people – there are collectivist and individualist societies across the world; to the time – some societies focus on the future but some pay attention to past and present instead; to the space – area occupied is in proportion to the status of a person.
As a matter of fact, organizational culture is not the same as the national culture. Organizational culture can be readily controlled by management while national culture...