* The history of management
* Human Relations
* Systems Approach
* Organisational Structure
* Matrix Structure
* Hierarchy Structure
* Leadership and Management
* Management of Change
* Diagram 1
In this report we will explore the history of management thought and how particular theories relevance stands in today’s environment and in future management practise. We will also evaluate the differences between management and leadership and analyse how effective leadership and management can be within organisations. We will also investigate and explain the different types of organisational structure and the impact they have on management practise. Evaluation of organisational structures aims, objectives, influences and any management implications of structural choice and exploration into how they impact on management practice.
The History of Management Thought
There are various schools of thought that exist within management. In the early part of the last century analysis of organisations are associated with theories by writers such as Taylor, Fayol, Urwick, Maslow McGregor and Mayo, laying the foundations for comprehensive theory of management. The study of Management theory is important because it helps to view interrelationships between the developments of theory, and personnel behaviour in management practise within organisations. Having an understanding of management thinking assists in an understanding of principles underlying the process of management. Miner states, Mullins 9th edition (p42) the more that is known about organisations and there methods of their operation, the better
the chances of dealing effectively with them. The main approaches to organisation, structure and management are:
* Classical Theory
* Human Relations
* Systems Approach
The classical writers thought of organisation was in terms of purpose, with an emphasis on formal structure, hierarchy of management and technical requirements with common principles of organisation. Detailed below are brief explanations into the theories of two of the most documented writers. Taylorism
Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1917) created his management system on production‐line time studies. Instead of relying on traditional work methods, he analysed and recorded steel workers' movements on a series of jobs or tasks. Utilising a time study as his base, he broke each job down into relevant components and designed the quickest and most effective methods of performing each component. In this way he established how much workers should be able to do with the equipment and materials available to them. He also encouraged employers to pay more productive employees at a higher rate than others, installing a "scientifically correct" rate that would benefit both the organisation and employee. Therefore, employees were encouraged to surpass their previous performance standards to enhance the workers earning. Taylor called his plan the differential rate system. Taylor believed that management and labour had a common interest in increasing productivity. Taylor’s philosophy was based on four basic principles; * The development of a true science of management
* The scientific selection of the workforce
* The scientific education and development of the employee. * Intimate, friendly cooperation between management and employees.
Henry Fayol (1841-1925) investigated the five functions of managers and principles of management. ‘Fayol described fourteen principles of management but later went on to say that there was no limit to how many principles there were. Fayol’s theory falls under the Administrative Management School of thought. Fayol’s theories...