What is management? Mosley, et al all (1996, 5e) define that management is a combined process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling of resources to attain organizational objectives. Is it art or science? Few concepts such as F.W.Taylor’s scientific management theory and Fayol’s Management Principles tend to say that Management can be taught and can be handled through scientific methods. Henry mintzberg's(1973) observed that mangers are not sitting in the desks all day long thinking, planning and executing them in a systemic ways rather they have had to use their own style of management. David E. Lilienthal (1967) believed that management is not only requires technical knowledge and skill to use them, instead understanding the individuals and situation is what matters most. In this article, Management as an art and as a science will be discussed in the following sections.
As said in the introduction, Management is a process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling activities to achieve the organizational goals. Bartol, et al (2005) say management is an ongoing activity, entailing good attainment and knowing the objectives to carry out management’s primary functions. Below are the important functions of management process. [pic]
Adapted from Mosley, et all (1996, 5e)
Figure 1: The functions of management
Bartol, et all (2005) describe that planning is the function involving setting the goals and defining how to attain the goals in a best manner. In any organization, planning is involved at every level to have clear objective. Mosley, et all (1996, 5e) describe that the function of planning is to choose the organization objectives and mission and then decide on the policies, projects standards and approach to achieve the objectives.
Mosley, et all (1996, 5e) define that this is the management function of deciding how a task is to be completed. This will depend on resources necessary to accomplish the objectives of organization. Tasks can be broken down to several autonomic steps or processes and group of resources will be formed.
Leader is important for any task to be completed. It is very tough to imagine what could have happen if Gandhi is not leading Indian independence movement. Can any one imagine what could have happened in Second World War without Winston Churchill?
Leading is the task of getting the staff to do things you wish them to do. Leader’s style, qualities and behaviors will influences employees.
Mosley, et all (1996, 5e) define that controlling is the process of formulating ways and ensuing that it is achieved as planned Controlling can be seen in our daily activities. It is important to check that ticket of journey, passport and necessary documents are taken to ensure tension less journey.
Management as an Art:
“Art is a skill at doing a specified thing” reads Oxford Online dictionary (cited under http://oxforddictionaries.com). In the 1983 Cricket world cup, the more fancied team West Indies, England and Australia were expected to win the tournament, but at the end it is India the underdogs of the tournament tasted the success. West Indies had superior batsmen, fearsome pace bowlers and on the fringe of lifting the cup thrice in succession. What favoured India to win in the final against West Indies is that they used their advantage of having few swing bowlers in the team to the perfection. Though they had skills as international players, peaking at the right time by accessing the situation made them heroes. The prominent management researcher Henry Mintzberg (1980) studied several senior managers closely on how they work and came to conclusion about managerial work methods. He found out that all managers did not follow same approach towards managing people and work roles. He categorized them into ten managerial roles based on the...