Management and leadership: the same as the other or not?
Looking at management and leadership, there appears to be many thought on the subject and this literature review looks into some of them. It appears that nowadays leadership is considered distinct from management but that was not always the case, the study of (J Bruce & Hinkin, 1998) shows that some similarities exist between the two, another study by Caroline Hulme also makes distinction between leadership and management but also says that the lack of a defining term for both is hindering further understanding of how to measure them, James Kotterman on the other hand believes that management is relatively new as it emerged with the rise of the complex organization.
Management and leadership are essential in the modern world, and have for some time been considered the same as the other except for recent years (Caroline Hulme, 2006), and running an efficient operation is linked to good managerial practices. This paper will investigate wither management and leadership could be considered the same thing, or that they are two distinct roles that cover many aspects of business, and may overlap sometimes, as such there are two sets of thinking, the first differentiates between managers and leaders on the bases that not every manager is a leader, while the other uses them interchangeably on the bases that a good manager would be a leader. In the study conducted by (J Bruce Tracey & Timothy Hinkin, 1998) titled transformational leadership or effective managerial practices tried to answer if the idea of a transformational leadership, which is characterized as a process of motivating employees by appealing to higher moral values and ideals (Burns,1978), is distinct from several fundamental managerial practices and thus could be considered separate and distinct from effective managerial practices, they conducted the survey using the Multifactor leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) which was developed by Bass and Avolio (1990), and the Managerial Practices Survey (MPS) which was developed by Yukle (1990), and at first they appeared to measure two distinct set of behaviors, but after a careful review some similarities become evident and blurred the difference between transformational leaders and managers, and although the study resulted in some mixed support to the idea that leadership is distinct although highly related to effective management practices, the results are too old to be considered up to date and therefore it raises questions about how reliable that study could be considered nowadays. Another thesis by Caroline Hulme titled “The right place and the right style” examined the difference between managers and leaders and noted that the issue with management is that we still do not have a defining term for it because of a simple reason, which is, that theorist are still debating wither management and leadership are interchangeable or not, and exclaimed that interest in leadership only starting growing in the past decade as opposed to management, and said that the separation of management and leadership became prevalent in the 1980s by business theorist who focused on defining what a manager does and what makes a leader, that lead to more studies to review the traits a leader possesses and makes him worthy of the term leader, and summed it up as “managers do things right; leaders do the right things” (Kent,p.1012,2005 as quoted in Hulme, 2006), and said that managing is an authority relationship while leadership is influence driven, and management creates stability while leadership creates change. The author also conducted an interesting study that found that some sectors such as the industry sector tend to have an authority compliance management while other sectors such as education tend to have a team management style, the reason that the author gives for this is...