Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 62 (1), 185-189, 2010
COMPARATIVE IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THREE PLANTS FROM THE AMARANTHACEAE FAMILY ASHOK KUMAR, B.S1*, LAKSHMAN, K2., JAYAVEERA, K.N3., NANDEESH, R4., MANOJ, B1. and RANGANAYAKULU, D5. Department of Pharmacognosy, Sri K.V.College of Pharmacy, 562101 Chickballapur, Karnataka (India). 2 Department of Pharmacognosy, PES College of Pharmacy, 560002 Bangalore, Karnataka, (India). 3 Department of Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University of College of Engineering, 515005 Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh (India). 4 Department of Pharmacognosy, Sree Siddhaganga College of Pharmacy, 561202 Tumkur, Karnataka (India). 5 Department of Pharmacology, Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, 501517 Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka (India). Abstract – The three plants presented in this study are Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus viridis L. They belong to the Amaranthaceae family and are traditionally used as vermicides. Our aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of the three plants using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). Methanol extracts of the three plants at different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/ml) showed dose-dependent vermicidal activities. At concentrations of 80 and 100 mg/ml all three plant extracts caused paralysis (8.18, 5, 12.16, 5.75, 10.2, 7.8 min) and death (14.65, 9.12, 18.6, 8.5, 18.6, 12.7 min), respectively. Piperazine was used as a reference standard at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Our study found that the three plants possess potent anthelmintic activity when compared to Piperazine. Keywords: Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus viridis, anthelmintic activity, Piperazine. 1
INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization estimates that a staggering two billion people harbor parasitic worm infections. Parasitic worms also infect livestock and crops, affecting food production with a resultant economic impact. Despite this prevalence of parasitic infections, the research on the anthelmintic drug is sparse. According to the WHO, only a few drugs are used in treatment of helminthes in humans. Anthelmintics from natural sources could play a key role in the treatment of these parasite infections. In view of this, attempts have been made to study the anthelmintic activity of traditional medicinal plants. For our studies, we used Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus viridis L that belong to the Amaranthaceae family and are traditionally used as vermifuge drugs (Fajimi and 185
Taiwo, 2005; Khare, 2007; Anonymous, 1988; Agra et al., 2007. A. spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae), commonly known as “Mullatotakura” in Telugu, is used as a laxative (Vaidyaratanam PS Varier’s. 1996; William D’ymock. 1976., The roots are regarded as a highly specific colic remedy by Hindu physicians (Sivarajan, 1994) and in Madagascar they are used as a laxative (Kirtikar and Basu, 1987). The plant is also used traditionally applied as a diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic and anti-gonorrheal drug (Vaidyaratanam PS Varier’s. 1996; Kirtikar and Basu, 1987). Some tribes in India use Amaranthus spinosus to induce abortion (Grubben and Denton, 2004). The A. spinosus is noted for its anti-inflammatory properties (Olumayokun et al., 2004), effect on hematology (Olufemi et al., 2003), immunomodulatory activity (Tatiya et al.,
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2007), anti malarial activity (Hilou et al., 2006), antiandrogenic activity (Murgan et al., 1993), effects on biochemical changes in the epididymis (Murgan et al., 1993), anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic and spermatogenic activity (Sangameswaran and Jayakar, 2008). Amaranthus caudatus Linn., (Amaranthaceae) is commonly known as “Peddathotakura” in Telugu. A. caudatus is traditionally used to cure kidney stones, leprosy, fever, piles (Vanila et al., 2008), as a “blood purifier”, diuretic...
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