A Suitable Base Material for Composite Resin Restorations: Zinc Oxide Eugenol

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Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661 www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchemtox

A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents q Gurdip Singh
b

a,*

, Sumitra Maurya

a,1

, M.P. deLampasona b, Cesar A.N. Catalan

b

a Chemistry Department, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009, India Instituto de Quimica Organica, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Ayacucho 471, S.M. de Tucuman 4000, Argentina

Received 31 August 2005; accepted 22 February 2007

Abstract The antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial potentials of volatile oils and oleoresin of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (leaf and bark) were investigated in the present study. The oleoresins have shown excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products in mustard oil added at the concentration of 0.02% which were evaluated using peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, p-anisidine and carbonyl values. Moreover, it was further supported by other complementary antioxidant assays such as ferric thiocyanate method in linoleic acid system, reducing power, chelating and scavenging effects on 1,1 0 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. In antimicrobial investigations, using inverted petriplate and food poison techniques, the leaf and bark volatile oils has been found to be highly effective against all the tested fungi except Aspergillus ochraceus. However, leaf oleoresin has shown inhibition only for Penicillium citrinum whereas bark oleoresin has caused complete mycelial zone inhibition for Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus along with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, P. citrinum and Penicillium viridicatum at 6 lL. Using agar well diffusion method, leaf volatile oil and oleoresin have shown better results in comparison with bark volatile oil, oleoresin and commercial bactericide, i.e., ampicillin. Gas chromatographic–mass spectroscopy studies on leaf volatile oil and oleoresin resulted in the identification of 19 and 25 components, which accounts for the 99.4% and 97.1%, respectively of the total amount and the major component was eugenol with 87.3% and 87.2%, respectively. The analysis of cinnamon bark volatile oil showed the presence of 13 components accounting for 100% of the total amount. (E)-cinnamaldehyde was found as the major component along with d-cadinene (0.9%), whereas its bark oleoresin showed the presence of 17 components accounting for 92.3% of the total amount. The major components were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (49.9%), along with several other components. Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume; Eugenol; Cinnamaldehyde; Antioxidant assay

1. Introduction Free radical reactions occur in human body and food systems. Free radicals, in the form of reactive oxygen and Part 57. Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 551 2200745 (R)/2202856 (O); fax: +91 551 2340459. E-mail address: gsingh4us@yahoo.com (G. Singh). 1 Present address: Agarkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004, India. * q

nitrogen species, are an integral part of normal physiology. An over production of these reactive species can occur, due to oxidative stress brought about by the imbalance of bodily antioxidant defence system and free radical formation. These reactive species can react with biomolecules, causing cellular injury and death. This may lead to the development of chronic diseases such as cancers and those that involve the cardio- and cerebrovascular systems. The consumption of fruits and vegetables (Peschel et al., 2006) containing antioxidants has been found to offer protection

0278-6915/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.02.031

G. Singh et al. / Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 1650–1661

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against these diseases. Dietary antioxidants can augment cellular defences and help to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components...
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