Antimicrobial properties in different type of plants.
A substance that kills or prevents the growth of microorganisms for example bacteria, fungi or protozoans is called an antimicrobial. This substance has 2 major roles which are to either kill microbes (microbiocidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic). Disinfectants are antimicrobial substances used on non-living objects outside the body. This substance included antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoals and antivirals.(1)
For a long period of time, plants have been a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health. It has shown some gradual increase in pharmaceutical purposes in Brazil. According to World Health Organization medicinal plants would be the best source to obtain a variety of drugs. About 80% of individuals from developed countries use traditional medicine, which has compounds derived from medicinal plants. Therefore such plants should be investigated to better understand their properties, safety and efficiency. In the last few years, studies have been conducted in different countries to prove the efficiency of plants in having its own antimicrobial properties. Many plants have been used because of their antimicrobial traits, which are due to compounds synthesized in the secondary metabolism of the plants. These products are known by their active substances, for example, the phenolic compounds which are part of the essential oils, as well as in tannin.
The antimicrobial properties of plants have been investigated by a number of researcher worldwide, especially in Latin America. It was proven that from 122 known plant tested, a vast number of plant shown antimicrobial properties to some bacteria such as Staphylococus aureus and Escherichia coli(2). It is estimated that today, plant materials are present in, or have provided the models for 50% Western drugs (Robbers 1996). Many commercially proven drugs used in modern medicine were initially used in crude form in traditional or folk healing practices, or for other purposes that suggested potentially useful biological activity. The primary benefits of using plant derived medicines are that they are relatively safer than synthetic alternatives, offering profound therapeutic benefits and more affordable treatment. Hence, more studies pertaining to the use of plants as therapeutic agents should be emphasized, especially those related to the control of antibiotic resistant microbes(3) .
(4)These are some of the essential oils which are included in the pharmacopoeias as having antimicrobial activity *
* Cinnamon oil
* Clove oil - stomatology etc.
* Eucalyptus oil
* Oregano oil
* Lavender oil
* Leleshwa oil
* Lemon oil
* Lemon myrtle oil
* Mint oil - in medicine, cosmetics (tooth paste etc.)
* Neem oil
* Nigella sativa (Black cumin) oil Onion oil (Allium cepe) - phytoncides, in phytotherapy * Peppermint oil
* Sandalwood oil - in cosmetics
* Sideritis or Greek Mountain Tea
* Tea tree oil - in cosmetics, medicine
* Thyme oil
Figure 1 Bacillus subtilis (http://www.google.com.my/imgres?imgurl=http://en.citizendium.org/images/8/89/Bsubtilisspore.jpg&imgrefurl=http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/bacillus_subtilis&h=336&w=448&sz=28&tbnid=oGhupHNaiNc0QM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=120&zoom=1&docid=DURVbg-tTPsafM&sa=X&ei=fKiJT8y_CpGrrAf80f2_Cw&ved=0CEgQ9QEwBQ&dur=1088) Figure [ 1 ] Bacillus subtilis (http://www.google.com.my/imgres?imgurl=http://en.citizendium.org/images/8/89/Bsubtilisspore.jpg&imgrefurl=http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/bacillus_subtilis&h=336&w=448&sz=28&tbnid=oGhupHNaiNc0QM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=120&zoom=1&docid=DURVbg-tTPsafM&sa=X&ei=fKiJT8y_CpGrrAf80f2_Cw&ved=0CEgQ9QEwBQ&dur=1088)
This type of bacteria came from the Bacillus genus which are Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the division Firmicutes. What makes Bacillus subtilis a unique type of...