Learning Strategies

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INTRODUCTION
Learning strategies determine the approach for achieving the learning objectives and are included in the pre-instructional activities, information presentation, learner activities, testing, and follow-through. The strategies are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles (Ekwensi, Moranski, &Townsend-Sweet, 2006). Due to the Learning Strategies are used to achieve the "learning objectives" that teachers want their learners to use when they are acquiring a second language, it is important to be conscious about the factor that influence the choice of learning strategies. What are those factors? There is a range of factors that affect strategy choice, including vocabulary learning strategies. According to Ellis (1994: 540 545) there are two broad categories of such factors: INDIVIDUAL LEARNER DIFFERENCES

* AGE: Young children tend to use strategies in task specific manner, whereas older ones use generalized and more sophisticated strategies. * LEARNING STRATEGY: According to Oxford (1989), general approach to language learning determines the choice of L2 learning strategies. For example analytic learners prefer strategies such as contrastive analysis and discerning words and phrases, whereas global students use strategies to find meaning: guessing, scanning, predicting, etc. * PERSONALITY TYPE: Ehrman (1990) suggests that each personality type is associated with ‘assets’ and ‘liabilities’ where language learning is concerned. For example, extroverts are assigned to have willingness to take risks (an asset) but with dependency on external stimulation and interaction (a liability). Another finding mentioned by Erhman was that introverts showed greater use of strategies involving searching for and communicating meaning than did extroverts. * MOTIVATION: Some researches show that “highly motivated learners used more strategies relating to formal practice,...
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