University of Phoenix
Leadership models have been used in uncountable ways to increase productivity and efficiency of organizations. This is done through various approaches, methods, and techniques. Some methods focus on specific job duties or individuals performing the job, whereas other methods are designed to help followers and leaders to perform their duties adequately, and as a group. Human’s collective knowledge has improved and continues to expand. Consequently, this desire fuels researcher’s efforts to evaluate old doctrines and uncover innovative truths regarding leadership models. The ideal leadership theory depends on the workplace setting and the dynamics of the organization or company. In fact, the human resources divisions employ different supervision models and theories to extend productivity and efficiency within the organization. Ultimately, this paper will compare and contrast four dissimilar leadership models or theories. The four leadership models employed involves such as the behavior approach, the power and influence approach, trait theory, and the social exchange theory. Behavior Approach
During the 1950s the behavior approach was introduced because researchers expressed disappointment with the well-known trait theory (Clawson, 2013). Consequently, they begin placing their central focus on leader’s behavior on-the- job, to observe what causes a leader to be effective oppose to ineffective (Clawson, 2013). Researchers deem the leader’s behavior essentially empowers the effectiveness of an organization. However, the follower’s behavior can also have a major influence on the work environment (Tangpinyoputtikhun, & Tiparos, 2011). In other words, the group can lose time on tasks not significant to production of the organization goal because of unwarranted leadership tactics. Even though human behavior can be influenced by various contextual such as followers, structure, and culture process (Tangpinyoputtikhun, & Tiparos, 2011). For example, the neurotransmitters serotonin plays an important role in regulating mood, sleep impulsivity, aggression, and appetite (Lemonick, 1997). There are different theories involving leadership behavior that can shape essentially followers mind-set within the workplace. The components that play a significant factor in connecting good leadership theories to a company, and its employees are through a range of situational variables, and method along with the instinct to know when an appropriate theory is necessary to apply in any given situation (Clawson, 2013). Nevertheless, no single leadership theory or model is inherently better than the next as each is designed to attempt to rationalize leadership behavior within the workplace. The Power and Influence Approach
The power and influence approach scrutinizes the interaction amid leaders in a workplace environment (Clawson, 2013). This particular theory central focus is emphasizes the leadership effectiveness and the use of their power toward others (Clawson, 2013). The two faces of power entail dominating power and empowering power. The dominating power leaders will try to keep vulnerable individuals by overpowering them (Clawson, 2013). The empowering power leaders will facilitate the vulnerable individual and they will use his or her power cautiously (Clawson, 2013). An empowering leader will place the organization ideals before self-interest to display commitment; as the leader’s behavior empowers the effectiveness of the organization (Clawson, 2013). Trait Theory.
“The traits as defined by Stodgill (1974) were being adaptable to situations, alert to social environments, ambitious and achievement-orientated, assertive, cooperative, decisive, dependable, dominant (desire to influence others), energetic (high activity level), persistent, self-confident, tolerant of stress and willing to assume responsibility” (Khan, 2013, p. 831). The...
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