Melissa D. Green, MHA
University of Phoenix
Leadership Models in Health care
Leadership has developed over time into a variety of different models. Four of these models are transactional leadership, transformational leadership, charismatic leadership, and situational leadership. This paper will describe in detail the characteristics of these four leadership models, focusing on their similarities and differences. These models also can be used to address contemporary leadership issues and challenges in health care. Understanding these leadership models will help move forward in any organization as a leader. Contrast of Leadership Models
Transactional leadership is also known as managerial leadership. It focuses on the role of supervision, organization, management, and group performance. In this model, rewards and punishments are based on the performance of the follower. This model is more easily recognized and utilized in business settings. It is stated by Weber that without structure and incentives, the higher sense of meaning dissipates (Jones, 2001). Rules, procedures, and standards are a necessity in transactional leadership and are most influential when problems are clear, simple, and defined. Specifically defined in health care, gender, age, education, and health care experience contribute to the utilization of transactional leadership. It was shown in a study of an Ontario Hospital that continued use of transactional leadership negatively impacted viability and ultimately the profit margin (Nurse, 2010). This suggests that followers ultimately need a higher sense of meaning within an organization to feel a part of it. Transactional leadership assigns a precedence of reward correlated to a followers worth, which can destroy their sense of commitment to the leader and the organization over time if the transactions are not favorable to the follower. However, without rewards and punishments, it is difficult to establish a leader-follower relationship. Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership is the management of emotion. These leaders are those who bring followers to exert a higher level of performance and exertion by encouraging them to surpass self interest (Avolio & Yammarinom, 2002). Bass and Avolio (1993) characterize transformational leaders by four characteristics: ▪ Charisma or the ability to communicate their vision; ▪ Inspirational motivation or making emotional appeals to followers to build or increase awareness of shared goals; ▪ Intellectual stimulation or encouraging followers to think outside the box; and ▪ Individual consideration or recognizing that different followers have different needs. (Bass & Avolio, 1993).
Transformational leadership is seen more in health care organizations combined with other leadership styles, such as transactional. Transactional leaders are said to work within the constraints of the organization, whereas transformational leaders change the organization (Bass & Avolio, 1993). Health care is an ever-changing field that requires organizations to change with the needs of the patients. Transformational leadership must be a characteristic when one is a leader of that industry. Charismatic Leadership
It is said that charismatic leadership invokes change in individuals’ goals, values, needs, and aspirations. There are three components of charismatic leadership: envisioning, energizing, and enabling. Envisioning entails the development of the objective for the preferred future. This stimulates enthusiasm in followers. Energizing is required by the followers to be motivated to act on the vision. Finally, the leader must enable the followers to achieve the vision (Wren, 1995). Weber initially argued that charismatic leadership arises in a time of crisis (Weber, 1968). In charismatic leadership, there are several...