SOCIAL NETWORK AND LEADERSHIP
Social network is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly individuals or organization (Serrat, 2009). Social network comprise community groups or organization, individual, and the relationship or connection among them. Any one individual can be part of multiple social networks, and the nature of these networks and the individual’s connection to the network can vary greatly (NIH, 2011). Bonding and bridging are two different kinds of connectivity. Bonding denotes connection in a tightly knit group whilst bridging denotes connections to diverse others (Hope and Reinelt, 2010). These two terms are commonly used in the social capita literature. The extent to which bonding or bridging occurs in a network often represent an intermediary outcome of leadership development. Social network is also fragmented into cluster of individuals having similar characteristic since clustering of individuals having similar characteristics since clustering is general property of networks. In many cases, a person’s friends may be friends with each other, creating a clique. A cluster is a tightly knit, highly bonded, subgroup. Identifying clutters is important because it illuminates important previously unrecognized subgroups. LEADERSHIP NETWORKS
There are four types of leadership networks
(i) Peer Leadership network is a system a system of social ties among leaders who are connected through shared interest and commitments, shared work, or share experience. Peer leadership network provide leaders with access to resources that they can trust. (ii) Organizational leadership networks is set of social ties that are structured to increase performance (iii) Field-policy leadership network is characterized by a network connecting leaders who share common interests and who have a commitment to influence a field of practice or policy. Effective field-policy leadership networks make it easier for larders to find common ground around the issues they care about, mobilize support and influence policy and the allocation of resources. (iv) Collective leadership networks is a self-organized system of social ties among people attracted to a common cause or focused on a share goal. Collective distribution refers to two or more leaders who work separately but interdependently in pursuit of a shared goal, and their interdependent activities generate leadership practice. In reality, these characterizations are independent: leadership will move between different types of leadership and will be made up of both formal and informal activities. SCALE-FREE NETWORK
Researchers have also discovered that some social networks are scale-free. This class of network is characterized by a few relatively highly linked or well-connected by a few links. One important implication of this organization is that such networks are highly resistant to random perturbations.
Scale-free network usually have few hubs with very high degrees. Therefore, scale-free network much more vulnerable than a random or ordered network to perturbation. More specifically, a scale-free network has the following properties: * The whole graph is rather sparse but has locally dense regions. * It has a “power-law” degree distribution: a few high degree noes hold the whole network together. All the remaining nodes have very low degree. * It is an “ultra-small world” graph with small diameter and ultra-small average path length. * It has a high “clustering coefficient”
* It is “resilient” to random attack, however “vulnerable” to designed attack. The scale-free network explains the existence of hubs and cliques in terms of two features of network evolution: growth and preferential attachment. Two mechanism, growth and preferential attachment may explain the existence of hubs. HIERARCHY, HETERARCHY, HOLARCHY AND LEADERSHIP
A hierarchy is a type of network structure, with nodes designed right in at every level. Hierarchy...
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