Leadership- the exercise of influence by one member of a group or organization over other members to help the group or organization achieve its goals. Leader- an individual able to influence group or organizational members to help the group or organization achieve its goals Leader Effectiveness- an effective leader helps achieve goals; an ineffective leader does not. Informal Leader- an organizational member with no formal authority to influence others who nevertheless is able to exert considerable influence because of special skills or talents. Formal Leader- a member of an organization who is given authority by the organization to influence other organizational members to achieve organizational goals.
2. Leader Trait. Recognize the 8 personal traits that have been found to have the strongest relationship to effective leadership. 1. Intelligence- helps a leader solve complex problems
2. Task-relevant knowledge- ensures that a leader knows what has to be done, how it should be done, and what resources are required for a group and organization to achieve its goals. 3. Dominance- an individual’s need to exert influence and control over others, helps a leader channel followers’ efforts and abilities toward achieving group and organizational goals. 4. Self-Confidence- helps a leader influence followers and motivates followers to persevere in the face of obstacles or difficulties 5. Energy/activity levels- a high energy level helps a leader deal with the many demands or activities encountered day to day. 6. Tolerance for stress- promotes a leader’s ability to deal with the uncertainty or ambiguity inherent in any complex decision-making situation. 7. Integrity and honesty- an indicator that a leader will behave ethically at all times and is worthy of followers’ trust and confidence 8. Emotional Maturity- a sign that a leader is not overly self-centered, can control his or her feelings, and can accept criticism.
3. Leader Behavior Approach.
- Rather than looking at personal traits of leaders, researchers began to focus on what leaders actually do- on the specific behaviors performed by effective leaders. A. Ohio State research that has been replicated in other countries:
- pioneered leader behavior approach, one of the main ways in which leaders influence followers is through their personal, day-to-day decisions and behaviors.
- Studies found most leader behaviors involved either consideration or initiating structure.
- Results replicated in many other studies.
1. Consideration. Define and recognize examples of the behavior.
- Consideration: behavior indicating that a leader trusts, respects, and values good relationships with his or her followers.
- Examples: leader being available and friendly, treating group members as his or her equals, explaining why he or she has made certain decisions and what the outcomes are likely to be to followers.
2. Initiating Structure. Define and recognize examples of the behavior.
- Initiating Structure: behaviors that a leader engages in to make sure that work gets done and subordinates perform their jobs acceptably
- Examples: planning ahead, setting goals, deciding which team members should perform which tasks
4. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership (leadership effectiveness model). - Contingency Theory of Leadership: the theory that leader effectiveness is determined by both the personal characteristics of leaders and by the situation in which leaders find themselves A. Define 2 Leadership Styles. Style can’t be changed or taught so you need to assign leaders to situations where they will be effective or change the situation to fit the leader
- Leadership-oriented- want to be liked by and get along well with their subordinates. First priority is to develop good working relationships with their followers, second to make sure the job is done (task accomplishment)
- Task-oriented –...