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Department of Chemical Engineering
CHME 426 –Chemical Engineering Laboratory III
Title Page (Full Report)

Title of the Experiment: Reaction through three CSTR in series

Submitted by: Group (4) Section: Female

1. Name: Amina AliID: 200550284
2. Name: Duaa TabarakID: 200553858
3. Name: Mariam RustomID: 200552242

Date of experiment: 31st March, 2010

Date of submission: 11th April, 2010

Grades:
Report presentation………………………………………… /15 Abstract and Objective(s)……………………………………/10 Introduction and Theory ……………………………………/10 Raw data………………………………………………………/05 Data Processing and calculations……………………………/20 Results and Discussion ………………………………………/25 Conclusions and Recommendations……………………….. /10 References ………………………………………………….. / 05 Total…………………………………………………………. /100

Table of Contents

Table of Contents2
List of Figures3
List of Tables4
Abstract5
1.Objectives6
2.Introduction and Theory…………………………………………………………......6 3.Apparatus and Procedure9
(i)Apparatus9
(ii)Experimental procedure10
4.Data, Results and Discussion11
5.Conclusions16
6.Recommendations16
7.References16
8.Appendices17

List of Figures

Figure (1): CEP-MKII stirred tank reactors unit ……………………………………..……….9 Figure (2): Concentration of NaOH vs. Time for the three reactors …………….…………...12
List of Tables

Table (1) Experimental concentrations and conversions for the three CSTRs reactors…..12 Table (2) Theoretical concentrations and conversions for the three CSTRs reactors……..14. Table (3) conversions for the one big CSTR reactor…………………………………........14

Abstract:

CSTR reactors are commonly used chemical reactors in industrial. This experiment is designed to examine the effect of having three CSTRs in series on the final conversion that can be achieved , and compare the results with the one obtained by having one big CSTR with equivalent volume to the three CSTRs.

1. Objectives:
* To determine the degree of conversion and the rate of reaction of sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate through three continuous stirred tank reactors connected in series * To compare the experimental conversions with the calculated by theoretical expressions. * To compare the performance of three CSTR in series with the one CSTR having volume equal to the sum of three 2. Introduction and theory

In chemical engineering, chemical reactors are vessels designed to contain chemical reactions. The design of a chemical reactor deals with multiple aspects of chemical engineering. Chemical engineers design reactors to maximize net present value for the given reaction. Designers ensure that the reaction proceeds with the highest efficiency towards the desired output product, producing the highest yield of product while requiring the least amount of money to purchase and operate. A type of reactor used commonly in industrial processing is the stirred tank operated continuously. It is referred to as continuous-stirred tank reactor. (CSTR), and is used primarily for liquid phase reactions. [1] In a CSTR, one or more fluid reagents are introduced into a tank reactor equipped with an impeller while the reactor effluent is removed. The impeller stirs the reagents to ensure proper mixing. Some important aspects of the CSTR:

* At steady-state, the flow rate in must equal the mass flow rate out, otherwise the tank will overflow or go empty. While the reactor is in a transient state the model equation must be derived from the differential mass and energy balances. * The reaction proceeds at the reaction rate associated with the final concentration. * Often, it is economically beneficial to operate several CSTRs in series. This allows, for example, the first CSTR to operate at a higher reagent concentration and therefore a higher reaction rate. * It can be seen that an infinite number of infinitely small CSTRs operating in series would be equivalent to a PFR. Many times,...
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