Knowledge Management (KM) can be defined as a deliberate, systematic business optimization strategy that selects, distills stores, organizes, packages, and communicates information essential to the business of a company in a manner that improves employee performance and corporate competitiveness. KM caters to the critical issues of organizational-adaptation, survival and competence in the face of increasingly discontinuous environmental change. Essentially KM embodies organizational process that seek synergistic combination of data, and information processing capacity of information and technologies and the creative innovative capacity of human being Therefore KM seeks to make the best use of knowledge that is available to an organization thereby creating new knowledge in the process. From this definition, it is clear that Knowledge Management is fundamentally about a systematic approach to managing intellectual assets and other information in a way that provides the company with a competitive advantage. Knowledge Management is a business optimization strategy, and not limited to a particular technology or source of information. In most cases, a wide variety of information technologies play a key role in a KM initiative, simply because of the savings in time and effort they provide over manual operations. The essence of knowledge management is to improve organizational performance by approaching to the processes capabilities such as acquiring knowledge, converting knowledge into useful form, applying or using knowledge, and protecting knowledge by intentional and systematic method. Knowledge management can be understood by innovation process of organization with individual to search for creative problem solving method. The dynamic nature of the new market place today has created a competitive incentive among many companies to consolidate and reconcile their knowledge assets as a means of creating value that is sustainable over time. To achieve this competitive sustainability, many companies are launching extensive knowledge management efforts (Gold, Malhotra, &Segars, 2001). To compete effectively, companies must leverage their existing knowledge and create new knowledge that favorably positions them in their chosen markets. To accomplish this, companies must develop the ability to use prior knowledge to recognize the value of new information, assimilate it, and apply it to create new knowledge and capabilities (Cohen & Levinthal, 1990). Many researchers have proposed capabilities influencing Knowledge management as preconditions or organizational resources for effective knowledge management (Gold et al., 2001; Gray, 2001; Holsapple & Joshi, 2000; Ichijo etl.,1998;Krogh,Nonakam,&Aben,2001;Lee&Choi,2003;Leonard-Barton,1995;Malone, 2002; Quinn, Anderson, & Finkelstein, 1996; Wiig, 1997;
According to Gold, Malhotra and Segars( 2001) Four KM process capabilities can be clearly discerned these are: 1) Acquisition process, 2) Conversion process, 3) Application process and, and 4) Protection process
( i ) Knowledge acquisition
These are the processes oriented towards obtaining knowledge. Many terms have been used to describe these processes: acquire, seek, generate, create, capture, and collaborate. For example, the creation of organizational knowledge requires the sharing and dissemination (i.e. collaboration) of personal experience. This process takes place at two levels: between the individuals and between the organizational and its network of business partners (Gold, Malhotraand Segars, 2001, p. 190). Thus, operations geared towards knowledge acquisition (accumulation) are required if this process is to contribute towards the superior performance of the organization.
(ii) Knowledge conversion
Conversion oriented KM processes are those oriented toward making existing knowledge useful. Some of the processes that enable knowledge conversion are the firm’s...