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1. The performance appraisal process of pharmaceutical product managers in Canada: an empirical study. 1
23 February 2013
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The performance appraisal process of pharmaceutical product managers in Canada: an empirical study Pengarang: Katsanis, Lea Prevel; Pitta, Dennis A. Info publikasi: The Journal of Product and Brand Management 8. 6 (1999): 463-493. Link dokumen ProQuest Abstrak: This paper examines the way in which the performance of the pharmaceutical product manager is evaluated. The article attempts to provide a picture of the principal functions on which the Canadian pharmaceutical product manager is evaluated, as well as of performance appraisal systems currently used in the pharmaceutical industry. Two methodologies are used, both in-depth interviews and survey, in order to provide the most comprehensive examination of this area. Additionally, it is examined whether or not these systems are proving useful in linking job tasks to performance appraisal in order to achieve the goals of the organization. Teks Lengkap: Lea Prevel Katsanis: Associate Professor, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Dennis A. Pitta: Professor, University of Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, USA ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The authors would like to thank the Pharmaceutical Management Center at Concordia University for providing the funding to conduct this study. They would also like to thank J. P. Laurin, MSc for collecting the survey data as part of his Master's thesis. Finally, many thanks to the three anonymous reviewers who provided invaluable input for the revisions of this document. Introduction Significant changes The area of product management has undergone significant changes in the last decade. Previous research (Katsanis and Pitta, 1995) has identified what these changes are and how they have affected the way in which brands are managed. One area that has been looked at conceptually (Katsanis et al., 1996) is the area of performance appraisal of product managers (PMs). Several recommendations were made with respect to how to improve performance appraisal for PMs, but there was no empirical evidence to support these recommendations. This research will shed some light on this previously unexamined area. Review of recent literature Brand management Boundary spanning Lysonski (1985) described traditional product management as what is generally known in management and other fields as "boundary spanning". Boundary spanners are individuals who have informal communication links with other individuals both inside and outside the firm. The majority of research in this area has focused on the activities of the boundary spanners themselves and their internal role within the firm (Lysonski and Andrews, 1990; Lysonski and Durvasula 1990; Lysonski et al., 1988; Wood and Tandon 1994). Typically, the PM's job is described as "responsibility without authority"; in other words, they must achieve their performance and other objectives through moral suasion, or what some researchers have termed as "politicking" in the organization. In fact, the rationale for this lack of authority is that: - quantitative measures would be disruptive as managers may become overly aggressive in meeting their numbers; - quantitative measures can potentially increase the amount of administrative paper work; and - the number of uncontrollable factors can prevent a PM from attaining financial goals (e.g. company budgets). Introduction of category management This situation has changed, to some extent, with the introduction of category management to the brand management system, with requisite responsibility for market share and profitability. Katsanis and Pitta...