THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Teachers play a vital role in building a nation. They are arguably one of the most important groups of professionals for our nation’s future. It is disturbing to find out that many of today’s unsung heroes like teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs. Ask anyone in the street how to motivate teachers and they will blatantly answer to increase their salaries. Ask what factors might have created dissatisfaction among teachers and probably they will enumerate factors like behavior of students, class size, curriculum, and the government policies in education. According to Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene Theory, the factors causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction, the two feelings cannot simply be treated as opposites of one another. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather, no satisfaction. Similarly, the opposite of dissatisfaction is nodissatisfaction. While at first glance this distinction between the two opposites may sound like a play on words, Herzberg argued that there are two distinct human needs portrayed. First, there are physiological needs that can be fulfilled by money, for example, to purchase food and shelter. Second, there is the psychological need to achieve and grow, and this need is fulfilled by activities that cause one to grow.
Many factors have been examined in an attempt to find which one promotes motivation. In the study conducted by Poling (1990), he pointed out that Pay incentives have been found to be unsuccessful in increasing motivation. In a similar study, Castillo and Cano (1999), concluded that teachers motivation is based on their freedom to try new ideas, achievements and intrinsic work elements. Whereas, schemes such as merit pay were predicted to be counterproductive. They explained that true job satisfaction is derived from the gratification of higher order needs than lower order needs. Educators’ decision to leave and...