The theory of job design is an important concept in business management. Workers are motivated by jobs in which they feel they can make a difference- and jobs can be designed with that in mind. In simple words, Job design refers to the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs. The nature of the work organization & the design' of jobs can have a significant effect on the job satisfaction of staff & their performance. Money alone is not the only reason behind why people work. They need to get enjoyment from doing their job & this is why job design plays an important role in motivating employees. Job design is concerned with the relationship between workers, the nature & the content of jobs, & their task functions. It attempts to meet employees' personal & social needs at work through the reorganization or reconstructing of work. Jobs can be designed in such a way so that employees are encouraged to perform well & enjoy their job. There are two main reasons for attention to job design: To enhance the personal satisfaction that employees derive from their work To make the best use of people as a valuable resource of the organization & to help overcome obstacles to their effective performance.
Job design uses an analytical approach to identify 1st the work, then the skill, & finally the employee who has or may acquire those skills. The three main methods of job design are:
Job rotation- involves moving a person from one job/task to another for only a limited time & then changing around again. For e.g. a worker who labels the products may switch to putting products into boxes between at 2-hr or 4-hr intervals. This increases the variety in the work itself & also makes it easier for the managers to move workers around the factory if people are ill & their jobs need covering. People dislike routine & boring jobs, so job rotation increases task variety. Job enlargement- is where extra tasks of a similar level of work are added to a worker's job description....
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