Job Analysis, Job Design and Quality of Work Life
Learning Objectives • Explain what is meant by job analysis and job design. • Understand the uses of job analysis. • Describe the content of a job description and a job specification. • Discuss the collection of job analysis data. • Explain the major methods of job analysis. • Discuss competency profiling. • Understand the major approaches to job design. • Discuss quality of work life, employee participation and industrial democracy.
This chapter introduces the concepts of job analysis, job design and quality of work life. The first six sections are devoted to job analysis and examine the collection of data for the purposes of job analysis, the methods of job analysis, problems that might be encountered, and the use of job analysis in relation to other HRM functions. Section seven discusses the issue of job design and the characteristics that should be considered when designing any job. The final section looks at the quality of work life and the use of quality circles to improve employee job satisfaction.
A proper match between work and employee capabilities is now an economic necessity, and organisations that fail to have the right people in the right place at the right time are at risk. Job analysis focuses attention on what employees are expected to do. It can be defined as the process by which jobs are divided to determine what tasks, duties and responsibilities they include, their relationships to other jobs, the conditions under which work is performed, and the personal capabilities required for satisfactory performance. Purpose of job analysis The purpose of job analysis is to determine why jobs exist, what tasks are required within the job, when, where and how the job is performed, under what conditions, and what qualifications are needed to perform the job. Components of job analysis Job analysis provides information about three basic aspects of a job. • • • Job content: the duties and responsibilities of the job Job requirements: the formal qualifications, knowledge, skills, abilities and personal characteristics which employees need to perform the content of the job Job context: situational and supporting information regarding the particular job
Approaches to job analysis There are two basic approaches to job analysis: • • a job-oriented (or task) approach - A job-oriented approach is concerned with what gets done — that is, the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the job (job content). an employee-oriented (or behaviour) approach. - The employee-oriented approach focuses on how the job is done — that is, the human behaviour required to perform the job (job requirements).
Job analysis and job design Job analysis is normally conducted after the job has been designed, the worker has been trained and the work has been performed. It is a snapshot of the job that exists at that time, not what it should be. When to analyse a job Job analysis is generally undertaken: 1. when the organisation commences and the job analysis program is started; 2. when a new job is created; and 3. when a job is changed significantly as a result of new methods, new procedures or new technology. Uses of job analysis The information produced by job analysis is used extensively in HRM. For example it is used to effectively hire, train, appraise, compensate or use its human resources. The information gathered during the job analysis used in: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Job descriptions Job specifications Job design organisational structure and design HR planning recruitment selection job orientation performance standards and performance appraisal training and development career planning and development job evaluation compensation and benefits healthy and safe working environment. industrial relations legal requirements
Job descriptions A job description is a written statement explaining why a job exists, what the...