Application of Role and Reference Grammar
Kristel Doone Q. Pedroza
Prof. Louward Zubiri
In Partial Fulfillment of the requirement in
Second Semester AY 2010-2011
Department of Linguistics
University of the Philippines Diliman
This study explores the functions of the two determiners of Waray, namely ‘IT’ and ‘AN’. While it is observed in Tagalog that the presence of ‘ang’ in the construction denotes what element of the sentences is topicalized, it has been recognized in Waray that the two determiners carry the same function. With the use of Role and Reference grammar, an approach that takes algorithmic maps from semantics to syntax and from syntax to semantics. This is an idealization of what a speaker does (semantics to syntax) and what a hearer does (Van Valin,n.d P:3). In this paper we shall analyze when the determiner ‘it’ should be used as opposed to ‘an’ and vice-versa, with regards to the types of construction using the semantic macro-roles under this approach.
1.1 General Introduction to Waray
Waray (or Waray-Waray) is a Philippine language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Leyte, and Biliran. According to the 2000 Census of Ethnologue, Waray has an estimated number of 2.5 million speakers of Waray( Lewis, 2009). Tracing its language family, Waray-waray is a Central Bisayan branch of the Bisayan subgroup. Bisayan is a subgroup of Central Philippine which is a subgroup of the Meso Philippine group. Meso Philippine group then, is a subgroup of the Western Malayo-Polynesian branch. Western Malayo-Polynesian branch which is a subgroup of the Malayo-Polynesian subfamily belongs to the Austronesian language family (Zorc, 1975).
1.2 Objectives of the Study
This study aims to analyze the use of 2 of the Determiners of Waray, the ‘IT’ and ‘AN’ and study the similarities and differences of these two determiners. The research aims to answer the following questions (1) When are the determiners used? (2) Is the use of the two determiners specific to certain subcategorization of nouns? (3) Are there specific constructions that allow the use of only one of these determiners and (4) how can Role and Reference Grammar explain the use and occurrences of the determiners in declarative Waray Constructions?
To be able to reach the goal of the paper and to come up with an analysis and explanation, the researcher elicited 50 sentences that showed the different occurrences of the determiners from 3 Waray speakers. Since the informants gave one-to one translations the researcher had to ask additional questions which was concerned with the 'interchangeability' of the determiners. This involved the substitution of the determiners used is a certain construction with the other and had the newly formed sentences validated, this was to check if whether or not the derived construction is still considered acceptable or not. After gathering the data, the researcher proceeded with the analysis by applying the Role and Reference Grammar Approach.
1.4 Scope and Limitation
In the following sections we will see how determiners in Tagalog and Waray function not just as a word that introduces a noun phrase, but rather the determiners indicate the topic and the focus of the construction, this is based on the belief from previous studies that Tagalog and other Philippine languages including Waray are characterized as Ergative- Abslolutive type of languages- while the study of the determiners and the role that they play in an Ergative-Absolutive type of language, this paper does not aim to validate and strengthen this claim, that is why among the determiners of Waray, such as 'han' the absolutive marker for a goal focus sentence, 'hin' the ergative marker for an actor focus construction, this paper will only focus on the two determiners that...