Practice Exam Question
Is money the sole motivator for the workforce?
Mitchell has defined motivation as ‘the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in specified behaviours’. Simply put, motivation is the reason why an individual wants to do something. The four characteristics that underlie Mitchell’s definition are: motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon, as each individual is unique; motivation is described usually as intentional; motivation is multifaceted and the purpose of motivation theories is to predict behaviour. The basic motivational model explains that needs and expectations will result in a driving force to achieve desired goals, which ultimately provide fulfilment, thus leading to new needs and expectations. The CIPD Employee Attitudes to Pay 2011 report provides evidence that since 2008 workers feel less motivated to perform well, and employees that receive bonuses gave a higher job satisfaction score than their counterparts. This evidence can be supported by Taylor’s rational-economic needs concept of motivation. Workers under his direction would deliver higher outputs to increase productivity and in return be rewarded for their hard work through monetary incentives. However, his belief disregards rewards that are not money orientated which could still increase productivity, also known as intrinsic motivation. Herzberg’s devised a two-factor theory to explain how to achieve motivation and job satisfaction. One set of factors are called ‘hygiene’ or ‘maintenance’ factors, which are concerned with job environment for example, salary, job security, working conditions, level and quality of supervision, company policy and interpersonal relations. If these are absent it can lead to an individual feeling dissatisfied. The other set of factors are called ‘motivators’ or ‘growth’ factors, which provide a sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, nature of the work and personal growth and...
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